A Multidisciplinary Exploration of Human Trafficking Solutions

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A Multidisciplinary Exploration of Human Trafficking Solutions


Volume 6, Issue 2                2021

Guest Editor: Dr. Helen McCabe
Assistant Guest Editors: Dr. Ben Brewster and Laoise Ni Bhriaini

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CONTENTS OF THIS ISSUE (CLICK/TAP the links below to read/download the individual papers)

Introduction to the COVID-19 and MODERN SLAVERY Issue
Helen McCabe

COVID-19’s Impact on Anti-Trafficking Efforts: What do we know?
Idel Hanley and Jean-Pierre Gauci

The Impact of COVID-19 on the Identification of Victims of Modern Slavery and Their Access to Support Services in Australia
Nerida Chazal and Ms Kyla Raby

Fluid Vulnerabilities: Narratives of Modern Slavery in India during Lockdown
George Byrne, Professor Tamsin Bradley, Elizabeth Khumallambam, Sutirtha Sahariah

Ripped at the Seams: RMG Sector Workers During a Global Pandemic
Christopher Hansen, Ridhi Sahai, Vaiddehi Bansal, Mithila Iyer, Jafar Iqbal, Maansi Parpiani, Michelle Davis, and Kareem Kysia

Shattered Dreams: Bangladeshi Migrant Workers during a Global Pandemic
Ridhi Sahai, Vaiddehi Bansal, Muhammad Jalal Uddin Sikder, Kareem Kysia, and Sharon Shen

Underlying Conditions: The Increased Vulnerability of Migrant Workers Under COVID-19 in Israel
Maayan Niezna, Yahel Kurlander, Hila Shamir

The Finance of Sex Trafficking and Impact of COVID-19
Phoebe Ewen

Red Light Refracted: Impacts of COVID-19 on Commercial Sexual Exploitation in Maharashtra, India
Erika Keaveney, Mithila Iyer, Xiran Liu, Rachael Jackson, and Kareem Kysia

Pivoting technology: understanding working conditions in the time of COVID-19
Hannah Thinyane, Michael Gallo

Australia’s Modern Slavery Act and COVID-19: a get out of jail free card?
Fiona McGaughey

Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on survivors of human trafficking in the Philippines
Laura Cordisco Tsai, Jonna Eleccion, and Ankita Panda

The Impact of COVID-19 on Survivors of Human Trafficking in Kenya: A Participatory Approach
Emily Brady, Aisha Ali Haji, Rehema Baya,Yasmin Manji, Helen McCabe, Muthoni Muhunyo, Sophie Otiende, and Ruth Sorby

Volume 6, Issue 1, 2021


Piloting a method for the aggregation and visualisation of audit data to enhance forced labour risk identification

Zoë Fortune
Director of research projects with a special interest in the fields of modern slavery and mental health

Silvia Mera
Director for programs combating child and forced labour

Paul Ling
Tech architect for The Mekong Club working in the field of social compliance


Ethical auditing is one key way that companies assess compliance with labour standards and identify issues relating to forced labour. Essential information on working conditions is collected each year across thousands of factories, yet data remains proprietary, is not harmonised in format or content, and is under-utilised with costs often passed on to workers. This can lead to an underestimation of the risk of forced labour in supply chains. To overcome such challenges, the authors piloted a unique method for the collection, aggregation, analysis and visualisation of social audit data from disparate, pre-existing but hitherto under-utilised resources. Data from 2,946 audits across six Asian countries was aggregated to pilot an online interactive risk screening tool. This paper describes methods used by the team and provides an overview of the online tool. Implications for improving social compliance auditing, risk identification, data classification and aggregation are discussed.


“Boys Are Like Gold”: The Gendered Differences in Sexual Violence Against Street-Involved Children in Southwest Cambodia

Jarrett Davis
Social Researcher and Consultant, up! International
Glenn Miles
Senior Researcher and Consultant, up! International
Maggie Eno
Director and co-founder, M’lop Tapang
Andrew G. Rowland
Consultant in Children’s Emergency Medicine and
Honorary Professor at the University of Salford


This paper explores findings from interviews with 130 children (55 girls and 75 boys) living or working on the streets and beaches in Sihanoukville, Cambodia and discusses their vulnerabilities to sexual exploitation and other forms of violence.  The paper finds that while both genders indicate significant vulnerability to various forms of violence and exploitation, boys indicate experiencing higher rates of sexual violence and seem to be afforded greater independence and less supervision and protection by parents and guardians. In addressing these issues, this paper aims to add nuance to discussions on the vulnerabilities of street-involved males in Southeast Asia.


Child Labour Edition

Guest editors
Urmila Bhoola & Cindy Berman

This edition seeks to explore the degree of progress and success there has been in tackling systemic and complex issues of child labour. Child labour – especially in its worst forms – is most often evident at the intersection between high levels of poverty, discrimination & exclusion, lack of social protection, lack of access to affordable, quality education, failures in labour rights protection & monitoring by states, impunity & lack of accountability of the private sector and high degrees of labour market flexibility. It often affects those working in the informal economy, doing work that is often invisible to public scrutiny and outside of the scope of labour protections. As such, the strategies and solutions to child labour necessarily involve multiple interventions and resources by multiple actors operating at the level of work sites, across whole sectors, at national levels and also across borders – where migration and displacement is involved.

The following themes and issues are suggested, but should not limit contributions:

1. What laws, policies, interventions, and regulatory systems have been effective, ineffective or harmful for child labourers and why? These may include:

  • laws, policies, and regulations governing child labour, including worst forms
  • Educational interventions
  • Social protection measures (e.g cash transfer programs)
  • Laws, regulations, and labour governance schemes aimed at businesses and employers (e.g. transparency laws, human rights due diligence, self-regulatory schemes)

2. What specific partnerships and stakeholder initiatives have demonstrated successes, lessons or failures in tackling child labour? These may include:

  • private sector coalitions – commodity, country or sector
  • multi-stakeholder initiatives
  • international organizations
  • worker-led initiatives
  • civil society / faith-based initiatives
  • critical combinations of actors, processes and approaches

3. What geographic or area-based initiatives have succeeded or failed and why? Examples could include, but are not limited to:

  • interventions working with local communities, cities, municipalities, states/ provinces
  • whole-of-government based initiatives to tackle specific problems in specific places

4. What has been the impact of COVID-19 on child labour? May include, but not limited to:

  • gender impacts
  • domestic violence
  • poverty and unemployment
  • temporary interruptions in education
  • loss of school meals etc.
  • strategies to mitigate these impacts

5. Rehabilitation and recovery—social, psychological, health-based initiatives (e.g. to build psycho-social well-being and recovery to mitigate the impacts of child labour on mental, physical, emotional health and development)

6. Role of technology

Some of these topics will overlap or weave together.

Final articles should be 4,000-10,000 words, including abstract, footnotes, and author bio.

Full submission guidelines

Submissions should be made via our Scholastica platform

Review decisions will be made by mid July.

Publication date is planned for September 2021.


Volume 5, Issue 12020

Sentinel Surveillance and Centring Prevention in Anti-Trafficking Policy and Response

Michael Gallo
Hannah Thinyane

United Nations University, Institute in Macao


There are more people today living and working in slavery-like conditions than ever before, highlighting limitations in the current anti-trafficking policy paradigm, characterised by its focus on prosecution and falling short on investment in prevention. This paper echoes the call made by other scholars for a prevention-centric, public health approach towards eradicating human trafficking and forced labour. Through a discussion of conceptual and practical advantages, it supports the use of sentinel surveillance for the proactive monitoring of at-risk populations to better understand changing patterns of exploitation over time. Centring prevention at the heart of anti-trafficking efforts is a long-term strategic investment in developing effective policy and addressing the root causes of why trafficking occurs in the first place.

“I demand justice. I hold them all responsible”: Advancing the Enforcement of Anti-slavery Legislation in Mauritania

Rosana Garciandia
Research Associate and Visiting Lecturer in Public International Law, King’s College London
Maeve Ryan
Lecturer in History and Grand Strategy, King’s College London
Philippa Webb
Professor of Public International Law at King’s College London


Mauritania was the last state in the world to formally abolish “chattel slavery” in 1980. It has since committed to work towards the elimination of slavery by 2030 under the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) Agenda and has progressively adopted domestic legislation complying with international law, such as the 2007 Anti-Slavery Act and the 2015 Anti-Slavery Act. Such legislation strengthened the domestic framework with the creation of special anti-slavery tribunals, an increase in penalties and the acknowledgement of victims’ rights and of the role of civil society organizations in protecting them. Yet, Mauritania faces significant challenges in the enforcement of its anti-slavery legislation and the government’s response remains insufficient.

Can Tech Tame the Outlaw Ocean?

A Book Review of The Outlaw Ocean: Crime and Survival in the Last Untamed Frontier (Author: Ian Urbina) and Film Review of Ghost Fleet (directed by Shannon Service and Jeffrey Waldron)

Bama Athreya, PhD


Thanks to a series of media and human rights reports, many of us are now aware that vast numbers of young men and boys are lured onto fishing boats and held in slavery at sea—sometimes for years without touching land. Attention to the dramatic extent of crimes at sea spiked a few years ago with incredible journalistic investigations by reporters at the Associated Press, New York Times, and The Guardian as well as continued human rights exposes by Human Rights Watch, Greenpeace and others. Now with the launch of Ian Urbina of the New York Times’ new book, The Outlaw Ocean, and the release in mid-2019 of an important new film on slavery at sea, Ghost Fleet, it’s time not only for renewed attention but a close review of what has been learned through an early round of interventions intended to end slavery at sea.


Fixing the Disjuncture, Inverting the Drift: Decolonizing Human Trafficking and Modern Slavery

Dr. Runa Lazzarino


As a re-elaboration and reflection on the contributions to an international symposium on human trafficking, this article makes two consecutive steps in modern slavery studies. The first step is a snapshot compilation of the complexity of problems involved in the discourse of human trafficking and modern slavery. I concentrate this discourse under two pillars, disjuncture and drift, which offer images of the often detrimental effects, as well as the equally negative “ineffectiveness”, of many anti-slavery apparatuses. Secondly, this article envisions a walkable avenue for a decolonization of the discourse of human trafficking and modern slavery inasmuch as this discourse has been monopolized by the center (referring to a few powerful countries of the global north).

A Multidisciplinary Exploration of Human Trafficking Solutions



Volume 5, Issue 2                2020

Guest Editor
Dr. Helen McCabe
Guest Assistant Editors
Dr. Ben Brewster
Laoise Ni Bhriain
Hannah Lerigo-Stephens
Dr. Daniel Ogunniyi


Foreword to the COVID-19 Supplemental Issue

Dr. Helen McCabe
Assistant Professor in Political Theory,
University of Nottingham School of Politics and International Relations, and Rights Lab

The global pandemic of COVID-19 represents a large and sudden exogenous shock to the world, and is having a significant impact on almost every single human being’s life in 2020 either in terms of their health, or those of their loved ones, or the consequences of the ensuing economic downturn. Given this, there are likely to have been severe consequences for people experiencing modern slavery; people at risk of modern slavery; survivors of modern slavery; those engaged in, or profiting from, modern slavery; and those working to combat it across the world. At the moment, however, as the pandemic continues to rage, a comprehensive understanding of the economic and social evidence of the effects is not available.

This Special Issue gives us the opportunity to highlight some of the research which is being done across the world to investigate, chart, and analyse the impact of COVID-19 on human trafficking solutions. A wealth of work is being done, both new research and the adaptation of existing projects to respond to this crisis. Researchers share insights into the impact on people vulnerable to modern slavery; those already experiencing it; those perpetrating it; those trying to fight it; and those trying to understand it as researchers and practitioners.

Hanley and Gauci sound an important warning note as to how COVID-19 might push efforts to monitor and address human trafficking down the international political agenda, while Chazal looks at the specific case of the impact of COVID-19 on the abilities of relevant agencies to work on preventing modern slavery in Australia during the pandemic. Mahaffey considers the impact on anti-trafficking efforts in Oklahoma, particularly among indigenous populations.

Several researchers consider the impact of COVID-19 on those already at risk of modern slavery. Byrne, Bradley, Khumallambam and Sahariah explore how COVID-19 has impacted women in India, and how the pandemic highlights how vulnerability and resilience to modern slavery is fluid. Thinyane and Gallo track the impact of COVID-19 on companies in Southeast Asia. Hansen et al consider its impact in the Ready-Made Garment industry in Bangladesh, while Sahai explores the impact on migrant workers from the same country. Niezna, Kurlander and Shamir scrutinise the impact on migrant workers in Israel. Ewan considers the impact on forced sexual exploitation across the world, while Iyer et al consider the specific impact on child sexual exploitation in India.

McGaughey tracks the impact of COVID-19 on increased risk of modern slavery in Australian companies’ supply chains – and the question of whether these were tackled, or whether the pandemic has let some companies off the hook in meeting their obligations to tackle this problem.

Others are exploring the effects of COVID-19 on survivors. Hogan and Roe-Sepowitz explore the impact of COVID-19 on survivor-support services in Arizona, and Chazal and Raby for Australia. Cordisco Tsai and Eleccion report on the impact of survivors in the Philippines. Lastly, Brewster examines the impact on “county-lines” child exploitation for drug-trafficking in the UK.

The research in this special issue also looks at good practice, resilience and adaptation. Valverde-Cano considers good practice by some European states regarding asylum and migration during the pandemic, and what lessons could be learned from this for the future. Thinyane and Gallo explain how changes to their research due to COVID-19 led to the adoption of remote monitoring with modifications to their existing Apprise Audit tool so that working conditions could continue to be scrutinised during the pandemic. Brady, McCabe and Otiende report their methodological adaptations for working remotely with survivors of human trafficking in Kenya

There is no doubt that COVID-19 has had, and will continue to have, a significant, negative effect on modern slavery and efforts to end it, seriously jeopardising our chance of achieving the global goal of ending it by 2030. There are important lessons to be learned from this research in order to try to mitigate these impacts as much as possible. We look forward to sharing more in-depth findings in 2021 when this on-going research has more detail, and more recommendations, to communicate.


Abstracted Articles in this issue…
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Forward to the COVID-19 Supplemental Issue
Dr. Helen McCabe

COVID-19’s Impact on Anti-Trafficking Efforts: What do we know?
Idel Hanley, Jean-Pierre Gauci

The Impact of COVID-19 on the Identification of Victims of Trafficking and Their Access to Support Services in Australia
Dr. Nerida Chazal, Ms Kyla Raby

Critiquing America’s Response to Human Trafficking: Race, Gender, and Colonialism Narratives in a COVID-19 Context
Lucy Mahaffey

Fluid Vulnerabilities: Narratives of Modern Slavery in India during Lockdown
Dr. George Byrne, Professor Tamsin Bradley, Elizabeth Khumallambam, Dr. Sutirtha Sahariah

Ready Made Garment (RMG) Study: Bangladesh and India
Christopher Hansen, Jafar Iqbal, Maansi Parpiani, Michelle Davis, Ridhi Sahai, Vaiddehi Bansal, Mithila Iyer, Kareem Kysia

Overseas Labor Recruitment (OLR) Study – Bangladesh
Ridhi Sahai, Vaiddehi Bansal, Muhammad Jalal Uddin Sikder, Kareem Kysia

Underlying conditions: The Commodification of Migrant Workers Under COVID-19
Maayan Niezna, Dr. Yahel Kurlander, Hila Shamir

The Finance of Sex Trafficking and Impact of COVID-19
Phoebe Ewen

Commercial Sexual Exploitation (CSE) Study – India
Erika Keaveney, Mithila Iyer, Xiran Liu, Kareem Kysia

Pivoting technology: understanding working conditions in the time of COVID-19
Hannah Thinyane, Michael Gallo

Australia’s Modern Slavery Act and COVID-19: a get out of jail free card?
Fiona McGaughey

Services and Safety for Survivors of Human Trafficking: A Social Service Agency Statewide Survey on the Impact of COVID-19
Kimberly A. Hogan

Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on survivors of human trafficking in the Philippines
Laura Cordisco Tsai, PhD, and Jonna Eleccion

COVID-19 and Child Criminal Exploitation: Implications of the Pandemic for County Lines
Ben Brewster, Grace Robinson

Assessing the impact of ad-hoc migratory and asylum regulations on the vulnerability to human trafficking and forced labour in Spain, Germany, and Italy: identifying good practices during the COVID-19 pandemic
Dr. Ana B. Valverde-Cano, Juan J. Ruiz-Ramos, Paola Cavanna

The Impact of COVID-19 on Survivors of Modern Slavery in Kenya
Emily Brady, Dr. Helen McCabe, Sophie Otiende, Aisha Ali Haji, Rehema Maya, Yasmin Manji, Ruth Sorby


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Journal of Modern Slavery: A Multidisciplinary Exploration of Human Trafficking Solutions, is dedicated to research, theory, and practical application in eradicating slavery. It is a nexus of critical thought for all fields relating to understanding and combating modern slavery and is unique in its focus on the issues of slavery and human trafficking.

The Journal engages academics and practitioners in dialogue between the fields, helping us find common language in work toward our common goal. It includes relevant research papers, review papers, case studies, book reviews and conference reports.

Studies currently published only within the author’s discipline or geographic area, which are widely dispersed and a challenge to track down, are assembled in this forum, to spark further research, invite interdisciplinary dialogue, foster changes in practices, create new university courses and new policy at all levels: locally, nationally, globally.

Our Editorial and Advisory boards are staffed with women and men with a diverse cross-section of professions, disciplines, nationalities and cultures, drawing on academic and field level expertise – they truly are subject matter experts in and worldwide leaders of the fight against modern slavery and human trafficking.

Journal of Modern Slavery is an online-only journal, giving it a worldwide reach and making it much more accessible than legacy journals. Our innovative website provides enhanced technical capabilities, increasing accessibility to our international audience of scholars, practitioners, law enforcement personnel, policy makers, direct service providers, legislators, judges and members of diplomatic corps. Our state-of the-art on-line Editorial Review application streamlines the peer review process and makes it easier for authors to contribute.

Anyone engaged in serious study of human trafficking and all its complexities can have access to timely information.

Interested in authoring an article for an upcoming issue?  CLICK HERE


Urmila Bhoola is a South African human rights lawyer working internationally on issues of women’s human rights, modern slavery, human trafficking and business human rights accountability. She was formerly the United Nations Special Rapporteur on contemporary forms of slavery, its causes and consequences, a mandate she held for six years. She is a former Judge of the Labour Court of South Africa and is currently an acting Judge of the High Court.


Research Unchained:
The Multidisciplinary Future of Antislavery Studies

A Special Issue of the Journal of Modern Slavery in collaboration with
the Antislavery Early Research Project supported by the AHRC Antislavery Usable Past

Volume 4, Issue 2
December 2018

Forward to Research Unchained: Multidisciplinary Future of Antislavery Studies

Dr. Jean Allain and Dr. Kevin Bales


This Special Issue provides us with the possibility to look into the multidisciplinary futures of antislavery studies and to appreciate the contemporary terrain in which early career researchers are seeking to establish and develop their voices. It is not surprising that fresh voices are represented here expressing fresh and challenging ideas.


Introduction by the editors of the Antislavery Usable Past Postgraduate Research Network Special Issue

Katarina Schwarz, Hannah Jeffery, and Rebecca Nelson, PhD candidates


This Special Issue transcends disciplinary boundaries, fuels collaboration, and brings the evolving research of early career scholars to light. It offers a space to hash out debates on definitions; to think about the role of technology in mapping sites of exploitation; to survey and understand the ways in which antislavery messages and strategies can be embedded in legal frameworks, multi-agency partnerships, and children’s literature; and to understand the lineage of slavery and antislavery from the past to the present. Featuring the work of nineteen academics in nine papers, it gives voice to a new wave of antislavery research that connects past, present and future and highlights the important role of research networks at all levels of scholarship.


Part I: Definitions and Legal Justice


Approaching Contemporary Slavery Through an Historic Lens: an Interdisciplinary Perspective

Rebecca Nelson and Alicia Kidd, PhD candidates


This Special Issue transcends disciplinary boundaries, fuels collaboration, and brings the evolving research of early career scholars to light. It offers a space to hash out debates on definitions; to think about the role of technology in mapping sites of exploitation; to survey and understand the ways in which antislavery messages and strategies can be embedded in legal frameworks, multi-agency partnerships, and children’s literature; and to understand the lineage of slavery and antislavery from the past to the present. Featuring the work of nineteen academics in nine papers, it gives voice to a new wave of antislavery research that connects past, present and future and highlights the important role of research networks at all levels of scholarship.


Securing the Prohibition of Labour Exploitation in Law and Practice: Slavery, Servitude, Forced Labour and Human Trafficking in Italy, Spain and the UK

Dr. Paola Cavanna, Ana Belén Valverde Cano, PhD candidate, and Amy Weatherburn, PhD candidate


The fight against contemporary forms of slavery is a top priority in the current global agenda. This article reviews and assesses the domestic diversity of labour exploitation regulation. In part 1, the article reviews the concept of labour exploitation in international and European law, whilst part 2 provides an overview of three legal frameworks – Italy, Spain and the UK. A comparative analysis considers the extent to which these countries implement international legal obligations both in law and practice. Finally, the article seeks to promote cross-fertilisation of experiences and dialogue among legal practitioners, both domestically and between different countries.


Strategic Litigation as a Tool to Combat Modern Slavery

James Sinclair, PhD candidate


The legal, political and commercial landscape surrounding modern slavery has developed significantly since 2008. However, the relative weakness of enforcement mechanisms within legislation designed to combat labour exploitation has meant that there have been few meaningful changes to abusive commercial practices. This article explores whether corporate accountability litigation could fill the enforcement void. It looks at the prospects for such litigation in the UK and concludes that there are significant challenges to be overcome. For litigation to be a successful lever of corporate change, it will require jurisprudential developments, extensive resourcing and dedicated, persistent professionals.


Irregular Victims: Investigating the Immigration Status Decisions of Post-NRM Victims of Human Trafficking, the Availability of Eligible Benefits and the Related Impact on Victims of Trafficking

Alexandra Williams-Woods and Yvonne Mellon, PhD candidates


Human trafficking is connected to migration as it often involves crossing international borders. This article argues that by failing to view the issue of human trafficking through the lens of migration, the current framework for assisting victims of human trafficking fails to ensure the protection of the individuals concerned. This article offers an innovative perspective by analysing the specific legal position of victims of human trafficking in the context of UK domestic law and international agreements, and tracing this to survivor experiences. The extent to which non-UK national survivors of human trafficking are able to access the rights that they are entitled to in the UK is explored, as well as what factors influence the accessibility of these rights. Utilising an interdisciplinary approach, encompassing scholarship of law and politics, this article links a review of the current legal landscape relating to immigration status for trafficking victims with empirical work exploring the experiences of non-UK national trafficking survivors.


Reasserting Agency: Procedural Justice, Victim-Centricity, and the Right to Remedy for Survivors of Slavery and Related Exploitation

Katarina Schwarz and Jing Geng, PhD candidates


One of the biggest failings of contemporary regimes governing human exploitation is their treatment of ‘victims’. This paper roots narratives of victimhood and agency in the legal frameworks through analysis of the right to effective remedy in human rights and international law. Dominant characterisations of ‘victimisation’ are problematised and an alternative formulation – the ‘victim-agent’ – proposed in order to recognise agency and its abrogation, advocate for participation consistent with the demands of procedural justice, and contribute to meaningful redress.


Part II: New Anti-Slavery Strategies and Cultures


“A Colossal Work of Art”: Antislavery Methods of Visual Protest From 1845 to Today

Hannah Jeffery, PhD candidate, and Dr. Hannah-Rose Murray

In 1967, the faces of black antislavery figures were woven into the fabric of the urban US environment to showcase radical black narratives and empower segregated black communities. Murals depicting the faces of Frederick Douglass, Nathaniel Turner and Ida B. Wells lined the streets alongside visualizations of self-emancipated figures slashing chains and unshackling bodies. Although these 1960s murals visualized subversive antislavery narratives in the streets for the first time, the cultural form of black protest murals was not new. In this paper, we trace the visual lineage of antislavery protest from the nineteenth century panorama to the modern antislavery mural.


‘They don’t play or run or shout…They’re slaves’: The First Survey of Children’s Literature on Modern Slavery

Charlotte James, PhD candidate


This article provides the first survey of children’s literature on modern slavery and analyses the emergence of this movement. Exploring fictional texts and survivor accounts, this article explores how these texts bring modern slavery to children from the news and media. It examines the various trends that emerge from these pieces, including the countries included, types of slavery highlighted, the ages and genders of individuals, and the authors of these texts, survivors or not. It also includes preliminary conclusions about the effectiveness of those texts as educational tools, discussing how these texts highlight signs of slavery and unpack its scale.


Analysing Slavery through Satellite Technology: How Remote Sensing Could Revolutionise Data Collection to Help End Modern Slavery

Bethany Jackson, PhD student, Dr. Kevin Bales, Dr. Sarah Owen, Dr. Jessica Wardlaw, and Dr. Doreen S. Boyd


An estimated 40.3 million people are enslaved globally across a range of industries. Whilst these industries are known, their scale can hinder the fight against slavery. Some industries using slave labour are visible in satellite imagery, including mining, brick kilns, fishing and shrimp farming. Satellite data can provide supplementary details for large scales which cannot be easily gathered on the ground. This paper reviews previous uses of remote sensing in the humanitarian and human rights sectors and demonstrates how Earth Observation as a methodology can be applied to help achieve the United Nations Sustainable Development Goal target 8.7.


Collaborating to Identify, Recover and Support Victims of Modern Slavery

Ben Brewster, PhD candidate


This article presents findings from a series of case studies into the impact of multi-agency anti-slavery partnerships in the UK. The research draws upon empirical evidence from a number of geographic regions as the basis of a comparative analysis involving the full spectrum of statutory and non-statutory organisations that undertake anti-slavery work. The article focuses, in particular, on the role of partnerships in victim identification and support, while simultaneously discussing issues and drawing upon existing discourse associated with policy, legislation and the macro conditions that impose barriers on such efforts.


Volume 4, Issue 1, Summer 2018

The Developments of Trafficking in Women in Post-Revolution Tunisia
by Racha Haffar

Understanding Child Trafficking within Ghana: Stakeholders’ Perspective
Emma Seyram Hamenoo and Efua Esaaba Mantey Agyire-Tettey

An Economist’s Perspective of Kevin Bales’ “Blood and Earth: Modern Slavery, Ecocide, and the Secret to Saving the World”
Jennifer Bossard, Ph.D

Cultural Competence of Western Psychotherapists in Helping Sex Trade Survivors: An Initial Exploration
Daphne Catherine Spyropoulos, B.A.

Civil Society Organisations in Counter-Trafficking Governance: When Long-Standing Interactions Lead to Solid Partnerships
Chloé Brière, PhD, LLM
Julia Muraszkiewicz, PhD, LLM
Amy Weatherburn, LLB, LLM

Volume 3, Issue 1, August 2016

Book Review: Collaborating Against Human Trafficking: Cross Sector Challenges and Practices (Author: Dr. Kirsten Foot)
Reviewed by Eve Aronson, M.A.

Book Review: Enslaved: The New British Slavery (Author: Rahila Gupta)
Reviewed by Amber L. Hulsey, A.B.D. and David L. Butler, Ph.D.

Learning From Incidents to Improve Services: Kenyan Victims’ Reaction to a Migrant Labour Scam in Thailand
Oscar Mmbali, B DIV

Prosecuting Human Trafficking – Progress in the UK
Kate Garbers

The Relationship Between Human Rights Violations and Human Trafficking
Julia Muraszkiewicz, LLM

Listening to Local and Foreign Sex Buyers of Men and Women in Cambodia
Samantha Sommer Miller, MAICS, Glenn Miles, PhD, and James Havey

Measuring Government Responses to Modern Slavery: Vietnam Case Study
Bodean Hedwards, PhD candidate, and Katherine Bryant, M.A.

Thinking Beyond the Escape: Evaluating the Reintegration of Child Soldiers in Uganda
Jillian LaBranche, M.A.

Volume 2, Issue 2, December 2015

Partnership, The Fourth P, Enhances HT Service Efforts in Prevention, Protection and Prosecution Arenas
Thomas B. Hofmann, PhD and Yaroslaba Garcia, MA

Repressed Memories: Historical Perspectives on Trafficking and Anti-Trafficking
Eileen P. Scully, PhD

Criminal Legislation for Human Trafficking in the Republic of Moldova
Nicole Fiorentino, MA

A Model of Multi-Disciplinary Collaboration in Regional Anti-Slavery Efforts
Erica Baer, PhD, Refael Olivares, MA, Johnny McGaha, PhD and Tama Koss Caldarone, JD

Human Trafficking at the US-Mexico Border and the Role of the Commercial Sex Trade Client
Lori Celaya, PhD and Marta Boris-Tarré, PhD

A Quantitative Analysis of Commercial Sex Advertisements During Super Bowl XLVIII
Jesse Bach, PhD, Courtney Mintz, and Jennifer Dohy, MS

Volume 2, Issue 1, January 2015

Trafficking in Human Beings as an Enterprise: Highlighting Key Questions About Data Shortage on the Business Side
Julia Muraszkiewicz, PhD and Dr. Hayley Watson

Rise, Unite, Support: Doing “No Harm” in the Anti-Trafficking Movement
Karen Countryman-Roswurm, LMSW, PhD

Toward Assessment of Child Survivors of Restavèk in Haiti: Development and Evaluation of a Locally Adapted Psychosocial Assessment Instrument
Cara L. Kennedy, PhD

Considering a Regional Approach to Combating Human Trafficking in the Caribbean: The ECOWAS Example
Jill St. George, LLB, LLM, PGDIP (BVC) and Tom Durbin, LLB, LLM, PGDIP (BVC)

Volume 1, Issue 2, July 2014

A Theory of Human Trafficking Prevalence and Forecasting: Unlikely Marriage of the Human Security, Transnational Organized Crime, and Human Trafficking Literatures
Davina Durgana

Human Trafficking Specific Jury Instructions: Tools to Increase Prosecutions and Convictions
Alexander Esseesse and Emily Tocci

Human Trafficking Investigations, Implications of Apathy and Inaction, Recommended Solutions
David Hartless

Funding and Capacity Building Fuel Cooperation: A Case Study of Counter-Force Networks Fighting Sexual Exploitation and Trafficking in India
Rodney Green, MSc

Au Pair Scheme: Cultural Exchange or a Pathway to Slavery?
Tina Davis

Human Trafficking NGOs in Thailand: A Two-Site Case Study of the Children Served in Education Programs
Robert Spires, PhD

Economics of Child Mining Labor: Estimation of Corporation’s Profits
Roger-Claude Liwanga, LLM

Book Review: Enslaved: True Stories of Modern Day Slavery, by Jesse Sage and Liora Kasten
Reviewed by Benjamin Thomas Greer

Volume 1, Issue 1, February 2014

Unlocking the Science of Slavery
Kevin Bales, PhD

Adopting an Anti-human Trafficking Law in the DR Congo: A Significant Step in the Process of Combating Trafficking
Roger-Claude Liwanga, J.D.

Who’s Watching the Watchdog?: Are the Names of Corporations Mandated to Disclose under the California Transparency in Supply Chain Act Subject to a Public Records Request?
Benjamin Thomas Greer, J.D.

A Truly Free State in the Congo: Slavery and Abolition in Global Historical Perspective
John Donoghue

Slavery Beyond History: Contemporary Concepts of Slavery and Slave Redemption in Ganta (Gamo) of Southern Ethiopia
Bosha Bombe, B.A. in History; M.A. in Social Anthropology

Ending Slavery
Aidan McQuade, PhD