A Multidisciplinary Exploration of Human Trafficking Solutions


Journal of Modern Slavery: A Multidisciplinary Exploration of Human Trafficking Solutions, is dedicated to research, theory, and practical application in eradicating slavery. It is a nexus of critical thought for all fields relating to understanding and combating modern slavery and is unique in its focus on the issues of slavery and human trafficking.

The Journal engages academics and practitioners in dialogue between the fields, helping us find common language in work toward our common goal. It includes relevant research papers, review papers, case studies, book reviews and conference reports.

Studies currently published only within the author’s discipline or geographic area, which are widely dispersed and a challenge to track down, are assembled in this forum, to spark further research, invite interdisciplinary dialogue, foster changes in practices, create new university courses and new policy at all levels: locally, nationally, globally.

Our Editorial and Advisory boards are staffed with women and men with a diverse cross-section of professions, disciplines, nationalities and cultures, drawing on academic and field level expertise – they truly are subject matter experts in and worldwide leaders of the fight against modern slavery and human trafficking.

Journal of Modern Slavery is an online-only journal, giving it a worldwide reach and making it much more accessible than legacy journals. Our innovative website provides enhanced technical capabilities, increasing accessibility to our international audience of scholars, practitioners, law enforcement personnel, policy makers, direct service providers, legislators, judges and members of diplomatic corps. Our state-of the-art on-line Editorial Review application streamlines the peer review process and makes it easier for authors to contribute.

Anyone engaged in serious study of human trafficking and all its complexities can have access to timely information.

Interested in authoring an article for an upcoming issue?  CLICK HERE


Research Unchained:
The Multidisciplinary Future of Antislavery Studies

A Special Issue of the Journal of Modern Slavery in collaboration with
the Antislavery Early Research Project supported by the AHRC Antislavery Usable Past

Volume 4, Issue 2
December 2018

Forward to Research Unchained: Multidisciplinary Future of Antislavery Studies

Volume 4, Issue 2, December 2018

Dr. Jean Allain and Dr. Kevin Bales



This Special Issue provides us with the possibility to look into the multidisciplinary futures of antislavery studies and to appreciate the contemporary terrain in which early career researchers are seeking to establish and develop their voices. It is not surprising that fresh voices are represented here expressing fresh and challenging ideas.

Introduction by the editors of the Antislavery Usable Past Postgraduate Research Network Special Issue

Volume 4, Issue 2, December 2018

Katarina Schwarz, Hannah Jeffery, and Rebecca Nelson, PhD candidates



This Special Issue transcends disciplinary boundaries, fuels collaboration, and brings the evolving research of early career scholars to light. It offers a space to hash out debates on definitions; to think about the role of technology in mapping sites of exploitation; to survey and understand the ways in which antislavery messages and strategies can be embedded in legal frameworks, multi-agency partnerships, and children’s literature; and to understand the lineage of slavery and antislavery from the past to the present. Featuring the work of nineteen academics in nine papers, it gives voice to a new wave of antislavery research that connects past, present and future and highlights the important role of research networks at all levels of scholarship.

Approaching Contemporary Slavery Through an Historic Lens: an Interdisciplinary Perspective

Volume 4, Issue 2, December 2018

Rebecca Nelson

Rebecca is an AHRC-funded PhD candidate on the Antislavery Usable Past Project (, based at the University of Hull. Rebecca’s research examines the way in which museums across the UK engage with antislavery, as both an historic and a contemporary issue. She has used a mixed-methods approach to her research, working closely with museum professionals, to identify the key challenges of interpreting antislavery for public audiences. Prior to this she completed a BA Hons Degree in History at the University of York and an MA in Museum Studies at Newcastle University.

Alicia Kidd

Alicia is a third year PhD candidate, researching the relationship between conflict and contemporary slavery using empirical, qualitative research based on interviews with individuals who have fled conflict zones and individuals who have experienced contemporary slavery. She has worked in the field of contemporary slavery since 2012, and currently holds the post of Vice Chair of the Humber Modern Slavery Partnership. Alicia recently received a High Sheriff’s award in recognition of great and valuable services to the community in relation to her work on contemporary slavery.



This Special Issue transcends disciplinary boundaries, fuels collaboration, and brings the evolving research of early career scholars to light. It offers a space to hash out debates on definitions; to think about the role of technology in mapping sites of exploitation; to survey and understand the ways in which antislavery messages and strategies can be embedded in legal frameworks, multi-agency partnerships, and children’s literature; and to understand the lineage of slavery and antislavery from the past to the present. Featuring the work of nineteen academics in nine papers, it gives voice to a new wave of antislavery research that connects past, present and future and highlights the important role of research networks at all levels of scholarship.

Practice: Slavery, Servitude, Forced Labour and Human Trafficking in Italy, Spain and the UK

Volume 4, Issue 2, December 2018

Dr. Paola Cavanna

Dr. Paola Cavanna holds a Master in Law by ‘Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore’ in Italy, where she obtained her Ph.D. defending a thesis on the prevention of labour exploitation in the agri-food sector. She is currently working as legal advisor in the field of migration and human rights.

Ana Belén Valverde Cano

Ana Belén Valverde Cano is a Ph.D candidate at the University of Granada, focusing on the regulation of extreme labour exploitation and human trafficking within the Spanish law.

Amy Weatherburn

Amy Weatherburn is a Ph.D. candidate at Vrije Universiteit Brussel and Tilburg University conducting research on trafficking in human beings and the handling of labour exploitation in law.



The fight against contemporary forms of slavery is a top priority in the current global agenda. This article reviews and assesses the domestic diversity of labour exploitation regulation. In part 1, the article reviews the concept of labour exploitation in international and European law, whilst part 2 provides an overview of three legal frameworks – Italy, Spain and the UK. A comparative analysis considers the extent to which these countries implement international legal obligations both in law and practice. Finally, the article seeks to promote cross-fertilisation of experiences and dialogue among legal practitioners, both domestically and between different countries.

Strategic Litigation as a Tool to Combat Modern Slavery

Volume 4, Issue 2, December 2018

James Sinclair

James Sinclair is an English lawyer, academic researcher and social entrepreneur. He qualified as a barrister in 2001 and spent the first five years of his practice working principally on international litigation matters. In 2006, James co-founded FSI Worldwide, an organisation dedicated to protecting vulnerable workers from exploitation and abuse in international labour supply chains. The company has now taken many thousands of people out of modern slavery networks by providing them with ethical employment opportunities. In recognition of their humanitarian impact, FSI won the 2013 United Nations Business Leaders Award and received commendations from the Thompson Reuters Foundation and International Stability Operations Association in 2017 and 2018. The company now operates in several countries across Asia, the Middle East, the UK and US. In 2018, James was named by Sustain Worldwide as one of the top 100 modern slavery influencers in the UK. James holds a Bachelor’s Degree in Philosophy, Politics and Economics from York University, a Graduate Diploma in Law and Bar Vocational Qualification from the University of Law, and a Master’s Degree in International Relations from King’s College London. He is a registered Barrister and practicing Solicitor. He won four Lincoln’s Inn Law Scholarships and is a Fellow of the Royal Society of Arts.



The legal, political and commercial landscape surrounding modern slavery has developed significantly since 2008. However, the relative weakness of enforcement mechanisms within legislation designed to combat labour exploitation has meant that there have been few meaningful changes to abusive commercial practices. This article explores whether corporate accountability litigation could fill the enforcement void. It looks at the prospects for such litigation in the UK and concludes that there are significant challenges to be overcome. For litigation to be a successful lever of corporate change, it will require jurisprudential developments, extensive resourcing and dedicated, persistent professionals.

Irregular Victims: Investigating the Immigration Status Decisions of Post-NRM Victims of Human Trafficking, the Availability of Eligible Benefits and the Related Impact on Victims of Trafficking

Volume 4, Issue 2, December 2018

Alexandra Williams-Woods

Alexandra Williams-Woods is a PhD Candidate at the University of Liverpool. The title of her thesis is “Human Trafficking: Abolition and Agenda. The Role of Ideas in the Development of the Anti-Trafficking Movement, the Development of Policy and the Experience of Victims”. Alexandra’s research interests are gender, migration and human rights and the international and domestic policies connected to these areas.

Yvonne Mellon

Yvonne is a PhD researcher and Graduate Teaching Assistant within the Liverpool Law School. Yvonne’s is in the final stages of completing her PhD entitled “The Modern Slavery Act 2015: Exploring Modern Slavery and its effect on Legislative Responses to Slavery and Human Trafficking’. Yvonne’s research interest centres on the concepts of ‘modern slavery’ and trafficking, considering how the practices are defined and legal responses are developed in relation to intersecting issues such as immigration, criminal justice and depoliticisation.



Human trafficking is connected to migration as it often involves crossing international borders. This article argues that by failing to view the issue of human trafficking through the lens of migration, the current framework for assisting victims of human trafficking fails to ensure the protection of the individuals concerned. This article offers an innovative perspective by analysing the specific legal position of victims of human trafficking in the context of UK domestic law and international agreements, and tracing this to survivor experiences. The extent to which non-UK national survivors of human trafficking are able to access the rights that they are entitled to in the UK is explored, as well as what factors influence the accessibility of these rights. Utilising an interdisciplinary approach, encompassing scholarship of law and politics, this article links a review of the current legal landscape relating to immigration status for trafficking victims with empirical work exploring the experiences of non-UK national trafficking survivors.

Reasserting Agency: Procedural Justice, Victim-Centricity, and the Right to Remedy for Survivors of Slavery and Related Exploitation

Volume 4, Issue 2, December 2018

Katarina Schwarz

Katarina Schwarz is a Ph.D. Candidate in the School of Law and Research Fellow in the Rights Lab at the University of Nottingham. She is grateful to the Arts and Humanities Research Council for funding her research under the Antislavery Usable Past project.

Jing Geng

Jing Geng is a Ph.D. candidate at Católica Global School of Law in Lisbon, Portugal. She is grateful for the funding of the Foundation for Science and Technology (FCT) in Portugal for supporting her work. She is also grateful to the University of Michigan Law School and INTERVICT at Tilburg Law School for their institutional support during the research and drafting of this article.



One of the biggest failings of contemporary regimes governing human exploitation is their treatment of ‘victims’. This paper roots narratives of victimhood and agency in the legal frameworks through analysis of the right to effective remedy in human rights and international law. Dominant characterisations of ‘victimisation’ are problematised and an alternative formulation – the ‘victim-agent’ – proposed in order to recognise agency and its abrogation, advocate for participation consistent with the demands of procedural justice, and contribute to meaningful redress.

“A Colossal Work of Art”: Antislavery Methods of Visual Protest From 1845 to Today

Volume 4, Issue 2, December 2018

Hannah Jeffery

Hannah Jeffery is a 3rd year Ph.D. student at the University of Nottingham. She completed a BA Hons in American Studies at the University of Nottingham and the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, and completed an MRes in American Studies at the University of Nottingham where she wrote on the cultural memorialisation of Fred Hampton. Funded by the AHRC, her thesis unpacks the intersections between art, radical black memory and space by examining why murals are an enduring and unique cultural form used throughout the Black Freedom Struggle, from the Harlem Renaissance to Black Power to #BlackLivesMatter. She is the creator of ‘Murals: Walls of Slavery, Walls of Freedom’ ( – a constantly growing digital archive that brings together, for the first time, U.S. murals connected to themes of abolition, slavery, Black Power, black protest and resistance. She has written about murals of the #BlackLivesMatter movement, as well as contemporary slavery murals worldwide, and she currently has an exhibition of Frederick Douglass murals on display at the Boston Museum of African American History.

Dr. Hannah-Rose Murray

Dr. Hannah-Rose Murray received a Ph.D. from the Department of American and Canadian Studies at the University of Nottingham and has been a postdoctoral fellow there since April 2018. Her research focuses on African American transatlantic journeys to Britain between the 1830s and the 1890s. Murray has created a website dedicated to their experiences and has mapped their speaking locations across Britain, showing how Black men and women travelled far and wide, from large towns to small fishing villages, to raise awareness of American slavery. She has written about Black performance, celebrity and networking strategies in Britain, and has organized numerous community events including talks, plays and exhibitions on both sides of the Atlantic. Murray’s maps and research can be viewed on her website:



In 1967, the faces of black antislavery figures were woven into the fabric of the urban US environment to showcase radical black narratives and empower segregated black communities. Murals depicting the faces of Frederick Douglass, Nathaniel Turner and Ida B. Wells lined the streets alongside visualizations of self-emancipated figures slashing chains and unshackling bodies. Although these 1960s murals visualized subversive antislavery narratives in the streets for the first time, the cultural form of black protest murals was not new. In this paper, we trace the visual lineage of antislavery protest from the nineteenth century panorama to the modern antislavery mural.

‘They don’t play or run or shout…They’re slaves’: The First Survey of Children’s Literature on Modern Slavery

Volume 4, Issue 2, December 2018

Charlotte James

Charlotte James is a postgraduate student at the University of Nottingham doing her PhD in American Studies. Having completed her Undergraduate degree in History at the University of Leeds, James stayed on to complete a Masters in Race and Resistance, an interdisciplinary taught course that offered insight into racial approaches and the various means of resistance. James’ Masters dissertation focused on 19th century black women and researched the memory of Harriet Tubman. Now completing a PhD at the University of Nottingham, she is expanding this research to include Sojourner Truth, examining black heroism and the evolution of black women’s memory. James worked for The Rights Lab at the University of Nottingham as a research associate, creating an online archive of over one hundred murals protesting modern slavery and analysing the use of children’s literature in the modern antislavery movement.



This article provides the first survey of children’s literature on modern slavery and analyses the emergence of this movement. Exploring fictional texts and survivor accounts, this article explores how these texts bring modern slavery to children from the news and media. It examines the various trends that emerge from these pieces, including the countries included, types of slavery highlighted, the ages and genders of individuals, and the authors of these texts, survivors or not. It also includes preliminary conclusions about the effectiveness of those texts as educational tools, discussing how these texts highlight signs of slavery and unpack its scale.

Analysing Slavery through Satellite Technology: How Remote Sensing Could Revolutionise Data Collection to Help End Modern Slavery

Volume 4, Issue 2, December 2018

Bethany Jackson

Rights Lab funded PhD Student at the School of Geography contributing to the Rights Lab Data Programme, University of Nottingham.

Dr. Kevin Bales

Professor of Contemporary Slavery & Research Director to the Rights Lab, University of Nottingham.

Dr. Sarah Owen

Assistant Professor of Remote Sensing and contributing researcher to the Rights Lab, University of Nottingham.

Dr. Jessica Wardlaw

Research Fellow at the Nottingham Geospatial Institute (NGI) contributing to the Rights Lab Data Programme, University of Nottingham.

Dr. Doreen S. Boyd

Associate Professor and Reader in Earth Observation, Rights Lab Associate Director of the Data Programme, University of Nottingham.



An estimated 40.3 million people are enslaved globally across a range of industries. Whilst these industries are known, their scale can hinder the fight against slavery. Some industries using slave labour are visible in satellite imagery, including mining, brick kilns, fishing and shrimp farming. Satellite data can provide supplementary details for large scales which cannot be easily gathered on the ground. This paper reviews previous uses of remote sensing in the humanitarian and human rights sectors and demonstrates how Earth Observation as a methodology can be applied to help achieve the United Nations Sustainable Development Goal target 8.7.

Collaborating to Identify, Recover and Support Victims of Modern Slavery

Volume 4, Issue 2, December 2018

Ben Brewster

Ben Brewster is a Research Fellow and PhD candidate at Sheffield Hallam University in the UK, working within the Communication and Computing Research Centre’s Centre of Excellence in Terrorism, Resilience, Intelligence and Organised Crime Research (CENTRIC) institute. Ben has a keen research interest in human trafficking and modern slavery, particularly in the role and impact of multi-agency approaches to combat the problem in the UK; a topic which forms the central focus of his PhD thesis. Ben also has a background of working on collaborative, multi-disciplinary research projects focused on topics including Child Sexual Exploitation (CSE), police-community engagement, migrant integration and transnational organised crime.



This article presents findings from a series of case studies into the impact of multi-agency anti-slavery partnerships in the UK. The research draws upon empirical evidence from a number of geographic regions as the basis of a comparative analysis involving the full spectrum of statutory and non-statutory organisations that undertake anti-slavery work. The article focuses, in particular, on the role of partnerships in victim identification and support, while simultaneously discussing issues and drawing upon existing discourse associated with policy, legislation and the macro conditions that impose barriers on such efforts.

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Volume 4, Issue 1, Summer 2018

The Developments of Trafficking in Women in Post-Revolution Tunisia
by Racha Haffar

Understanding Child Trafficking within Ghana: Stakeholders’ Perspective
Emma Seyram Hamenoo and Efua Esaaba Mantey Agyire-Tettey

An Economist’s Perspective of Kevin Bales’ “Blood and Earth: Modern Slavery, Ecocide, and the Secret to Saving the World”
Jennifer Bossard, Ph.D

Cultural Competence of Western Psychotherapists in Helping Sex Trade Survivors: An Initial Exploration
Daphne Catherine Spyropoulos, B.A.

Civil Society Organisations in Counter-Trafficking Governance: When Long-Standing Interactions Lead to Solid Partnerships
Chloé Brière, PhD, LLM
Julia Muraszkiewicz, PhD, LLM
Amy Weatherburn, LLB, LLM

Volume 3, Issue 1, August 2016

Book Review: Collaborating Against Human Trafficking: Cross Sector Challenges and Practices (Author: Dr. Kirsten Foot)
Reviewed by Eve Aronson, M.A.

Book Review: Enslaved: The New British Slavery (Author: Rahila Gupta)
Reviewed by Amber L. Hulsey, A.B.D. and David L. Butler, Ph.D.

Learning From Incidents to Improve Services: Kenyan Victims’ Reaction to a Migrant Labour Scam in Thailand
Oscar Mmbali, B DIV

Prosecuting Human Trafficking – Progress in the UK
Kate Garbers

The Relationship Between Human Rights Violations and Human Trafficking
Julia Muraszkiewicz, LLM

Listening to Local and Foreign Sex Buyers of Men and Women in Cambodia
Samantha Sommer Miller, MAICS, Glenn Miles, PhD, and James Havey

Measuring Government Responses to Modern Slavery: Vietnam Case Study
Bodean Hedwards, PhD candidate, and Katherine Bryant, M.A.

Thinking Beyond the Escape: Evaluating the Reintegration of Child Soldiers in Uganda
Jillian LaBranche, M.A.

Volume 2, Issue 2, December 2015

Partnership, The Fourth P, Enhances HT Service Efforts in Prevention, Protection and Prosecution Arenas
Thomas B. Hofmann, PhD and Yaroslaba Garcia, MA

Repressed Memories: Historical Perspectives on Trafficking and Anti-Trafficking
Eileen P. Scully, PhD

Criminal Legislation for Human Trafficking in the Republic of Moldova
Nicole Fiorentino, MA

A Model of Multi-Disciplinary Collaboration in Regional Anti-Slavery Efforts
Erica Baer, PhD, Refael Olivares, MA, Johnny McGaha, PhD and Tama Koss Caldarone, JD

Human Trafficking at the US-Mexico Border and the Role of the Commercial Sex Trade Client
Lori Celaya, PhD and Marta Boris-Tarré, PhD

A Quantitative Analysis of Commercial Sex Advertisements During Super Bowl XLVIII
Jesse Bach, PhD, Courtney Mintz, and Jennifer Dohy, MS

Volume 2, Issue 1, January 2015

Trafficking in Human Beings as an Enterprise: Highlighting Key Questions About Data Shortage on the Business Side
Julia Muraszkiewicz, PhD and Dr. Hayley Watson

Rise, Unite, Support: Doing “No Harm” in the Anti-Trafficking Movement
Karen Countryman-Roswurm, LMSW, PhD

Toward Assessment of Child Survivors of Restavèk in Haiti: Development and Evaluation of a Locally Adapted Psychosocial Assessment Instrument
Cara L. Kennedy, PhD

Considering a Regional Approach to Combating Human Trafficking in the Caribbean: The ECOWAS Example
Jill St. George, LLB, LLM, PGDIP (BVC) and Tom Durbin, LLB, LLM, PGDIP (BVC)

Volume 1, Issue 2, December 2014

A Theory of Human Trafficking Prevalence and Forecasting: Unlikely Marriage of the Human Security, Transnational Organized Crime, and Human Trafficking Literatures
Davina Durgana

Human Trafficking Specific Jury Instructions: Tools to Increase Prosecutions and Convictions
Alexander Esseesse and Emily Tocci

Human Trafficking Investigations, Implications of Apathy and Inaction, Recommended Solutions
David Hartless

Funding and Capacity Building Fuel Cooperation: A Case Study of Counter-Force Networks Fighting Sexual Exploitation and Trafficking in India
Rodney Green, MSc

Au Pair Scheme: Cultural Exchange or a Pathway to Slavery?
Tina Davis

Human Trafficking NGOs in Thailand: A Two-Site Case Study of the Children Served in Education Programs
Robert Spires, PhD

Economics of Child Mining Labor: Estimation of Corporation’s Profits
Roger-Claude Liwanga, LLM

Book Review: Enslaved: True Stories of Modern Day Slavery, by Jesse Sage and Liora Kasten
Reviewed by Benjamin Thomas Greer

Volume 1, Issue 1,  February2014

Unlocking the Science of Slavery
Kevin Bales, PhD

Adopting an Anti-human Trafficking Law in the DR Congo: A Significant Step in the Process of Combating Trafficking
Roger-Claude Liwanga, J.D.

Who’s Watching the Watchdog?: Are the Names of Corporations Mandated to Disclose under the California Transparency in Supply Chain Act Subject to a Public Records Request?
Benjamin Thomas Greer, J.D.

A Truly Free State in the Congo: Slavery and Abolition in Global Historical Perspective
John Donoghue

Slavery Beyond History: Contemporary Concepts of Slavery and Slave Redemption in Ganta (Gamo) of Southern Ethiopia
Bosha Bombe, B.A. in History; M.A. in Social Anthropology

Ending Slavery
Aidan McQuade, PhD