A Multidisciplinary Exploration of Human Trafficking Solutions

Volume 1, Issue 2
July 2014
ISSN: 2333-7222

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A Theory of Human Trafficking Prevalence and Forecasting: Unlikely Marriage of the Human Security, Transnational Organized Crime, and Human Trafficking Literatures

Davina Durgana


This article provides the first concerted effort to combine major relevant factors measuring and contributing to vulnerability to human trafficking in the United States for statistical extrapolation of victim prevalence. While utilizing the human security framework to better conceptualize the risks of human trafficking for vulnerable individuals remains an underdeveloped academic contribution, this project proposes a theoretically more ambitious and complete response to underpin prevalence and forecasting models.


Human Trafficking Specific Jury Instructions: Tools to Increase Prosecutions and Convictions

Alexander Esseesse and Emily Tocci


Human trafficking is a modern form of slavery.1 Victims of human trafficking are faced with numerous and complex issues ranging from bodily injury caused by physical harm to post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) generated by repeated abuse, intimidation, and fear. While varying forms of human exploitation have been in existence for millennia, over the past two decades countries have taken a more serious approach to addressing the problem of human trafficking by enacting legislation, improving resources to victims, and encouraging more education of law enforcement officials.


Human Trafficking Investigations, Implications of Apathy and Inaction, Recommended Solutions

David Hartless


Human Trafficking (HT) is both a global and national epidemic and yet, it has not truly touched the hearts and minds of the Canadian population at large. For example, to date, neither law enforcement/justice training nor investigation is on par with gang violence, drugs, or even prostitution.


Funding and Capacity Building Fuel Cooperation: A Case Study of Counter-Force Networks Fighting Sexual Exploitation and Trafficking in India

Rodney Green, MSc


Historically, organizations combatting trafficking for sexual exploitation in India have struggled to cooperate. Due to the multifaceted demands of protecting vulnerable populations and confronting criminal networks, a lack of cooperation can lead to interventions that are ineffective or detrimental. Multiple case studies have indicated that there are three interrelated challenges that hinder cooperation: complex political landscapes, limited vision and funding dedicated to inter-organizational relationships, and a lack of expertise in particular disciplines. One case study indicated that coordinated funding and capacity building fueled sustainable cooperation to form a counter-force that can more effectively combat sexual exploitation and trafficking in India.


Au Pair Scheme: Cultural Exchange or a Pathway to Slavery?

Tina Davis


There has been a change in the use of the au pair scheme in the past fifteen years that has created a shift from its original intention as a cultural exchange program. Socio- economic change in societies in the South and East has led to a new wave of female migrants seeking legal work opportunities in European countries, and change in the North has led to an increase in demand for domestic workers. The au pair program has become a means to cover these needs. Yet the use of the au pair institution as a temporary domestic work system creates challenges that not only contradict its intention, but also fail to offer labor rights and protection to the migrant women who enter the program to earn money. This article examines the au pair system in Norway, a country known for social and gender equality and a strongly developed welfare system based on social democratic ideals of solidarity. The article focuses in particular on how the au pair scheme is being misused as a temporary domestic work system by both the host families and the au pairs, and the exploitation and human trafficking cases that have emerged as a consequence in recent years.


Human Trafficking NGOs in Thailand: A Two-Site Case Study of the Children Served in Education Programs

Robert Spires, PhD


In this qualitative case study, two Thai Non-Governmental Organizations (NGO) shelters/schools working with human trafficking survivors and at-risk populations of children ages 5-18 were examined. This study takes the stance that the work of the NGOs needs to be understood through the first-hand perceptions and attitudes of NGO staff and the children they serve. Education is an intervention designed to achieve the mission of both NGOs. Education is treated as a means of preventing human trafficking and protecting human trafficking survivors from returning to exploitative situations, though the effectiveness of the intervention is unclear. This study sought an understanding of the perceptions and attitudes of the staff and children at the NGOs. Thematic findings explored cultural, social, economic and political issues impacting the children served at the NGOs. The issues of statelessness and poverty as well as secondary issues were explored through interviews with students, teachers and staff at the NGOs. NGO efforts to reduce the vulnerability of children are discussed, as well as the barriers that both children and NGOs face in vulnerability reduction efforts.


Economics of Child Mining Labor: Estimation of Corporation’s Profits

Roger-Claude Liwanga , LLM


This article estimates the contribution of child labor to the production of mined minerals and calculates the profit made by manufacturers involved in the supply chains of child- labor minerals. Several thousands of children in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) work in the artisanal and small-scale mines under dangerous conditions to extract a variety of minerals, including those used in the fabrication of modern electronics. But there is no detailed data on the scope of productivity of child-miners, the value of their production at the world market, and the profit made by those buying and using their minerals. The lack of data on this issue is occasioned by the quasi-secrecy surrounding the supply chains of child-labor minerals. The paper uses a simple method of estimation based on economic assumptions and available data to calculate the contribution of child-miners in the DRC to the cobalt production at the national and international level, and to estimate the profit made by electronic manufacturers that use cobalt tainted with child-labor in their products.


Book Review: Enslaved: True Stories of Modern Day Slavery, by Jesse Sage and Liora Kasten

Benjamin Thomas Greer


Human trafficking is an abomination that decimates the lives of the trafficked, fracturing their families, and is an act which exploits their labor and bodies, treating them as a renewable resource. Trafficking in people is the fastest growing crime:1 not only in the numbers of victims and profits, but in the world’s consciousness.2 According to the United States, State Department’s 2010 report, there are over twelve million adults and children in forced labor, bonded labor, and forced prostitution worldwide.3 As this emerging issue grows in awareness it is imperative to bear in mind that the victims are people and not just statistics.


Volume 4, Issue 2, December 2018

Forward to Research Unchained: Multidisciplinary Future of Antislavery Studies
Dr. Jean Allain and Dr. Kevin Bales

Introduction by the editors of the Antislavery Usable Past Postgraduate Research Network Special Issue
Katarina Schwarz, Hannah Jeffery, and Rebecca Nelson, PhD candidates

Approaching Contemporary Slavery Through an Historic Lens: an Interdisciplinary Perspective
Rebecca Nelson and Alicia Kidd, PhD candidates

Securing the Prohibition of Labour Exploitation in Law and Practice: Slavery, Servitude, Forced Labour and Human Trafficking in Italy, Spain and the UK
Dr. Paola Cavanna, Ana Belén Valverde Cano, PhD candidate, and Amy Weatherburn, PhD candidate

Strategic Litigation as a Tool to Combat Modern Slavery
James Sinclair, PhD candidate

Irregular Victims: Investigating the Immigration Status Decisions of Post-NRM Victims of Human Trafficking, the Availability of Eligible Benefits and the Related Impact on Victims of Trafficking
Alexandra Williams-Woods and Yvonne Mellon, PhD candidates

Reasserting Agency: Procedural Justice, Victim-Centricity, and the Right to Remedy for Survivors of Slavery and Related Exploitation
Katarina Schwarz and Jing Geng, PhD candidates

“A Colossal Work of Art”: Antislavery Methods of Visual Protest From 1845 to Today
Hannah Jeffery, PhD candidate, and Dr. Hannah-Rose Murray

‘They don’t play or run or shout…They’re slaves’: The First Survey of Children’s Literature on Modern Slavery
Charlotte James, PhD candidate

Analysing Slavery through Satellite Technology: How Remote Sensing Could Revolutionise Data Collection to Help End Modern Slavery
Bethany Jackson, PhD student, Dr. Kevin Bales, Dr. Sarah Owen, Dr. Jessica Wardlaw, and Dr. Doreen S. Boyd

Collaborating to Identify, Recover and Support Victims of Modern Slavery
Ben Brewster, PhD candidate

Volume 4, Issue 1, Summer 2018

The Developments of Trafficking in Women in Post-Revolution Tunisia
by Racha Haffar

Understanding Child Trafficking within Ghana: Stakeholders’ Perspective
Emma Seyram Hamenoo and Efua Esaaba Mantey Agyire-Tettey

An Economist’s Perspective of Kevin Bales’ “Blood and Earth: Modern Slavery, Ecocide, and the Secret to Saving the World”
Jennifer Bossard, Ph.D

Cultural Competence of Western Psychotherapists in Helping Sex Trade Survivors: An Initial Exploration
Daphne Catherine Spyropoulos, B.A.

Civil Society Organisations in Counter-Trafficking Governance: When Long-Standing Interactions Lead to Solid Partnerships
Chloé Brière, PhD, LLM
Julia Muraszkiewicz, PhD, LLM
Amy Weatherburn, LLB, LLM

Volume 3, Issue 1, August 2016

Book Review: Collaborating Against Human Trafficking: Cross Sector Challenges and Practices (Author: Dr. Kirsten Foot)
Reviewed by Eve Aronson, M.A.

Book Review: Enslaved: The New British Slavery (Author: Rahila Gupta)
Reviewed by Amber L. Hulsey, A.B.D. and David L. Butler, Ph.D.

Learning From Incidents to Improve Services: Kenyan Victims’ Reaction to a Migrant Labour Scam in Thailand
Oscar Mmbali, B DIV

Prosecuting Human Trafficking – Progress in the UK
Kate Garbers

The Relationship Between Human Rights Violations and Human Trafficking
Julia Muraszkiewicz, LLM

Listening to Local and Foreign Sex Buyers of Men and Women in Cambodia
Samantha Sommer Miller, MAICS, Glenn Miles, PhD, and James Havey

Measuring Government Responses to Modern Slavery: Vietnam Case Study
Bodean Hedwards, PhD candidate, and Katherine Bryant, M.A.

Thinking Beyond the Escape: Evaluating the Reintegration of Child Soldiers in Uganda
Jillian LaBranche, M.A.

Volume 2, Issue 2, December 2015

Partnership, The Fourth P, Enhances HT Service Efforts in Prevention, Protection and Prosecution Arenas
Thomas B. Hofmann, PhD and Yaroslaba Garcia, MA

Repressed Memories: Historical Perspectives on Trafficking and Anti-Trafficking
Eileen P. Scully, PhD

Criminal Legislation for Human Trafficking in the Republic of Moldova
Nicole Fiorentino, MA

A Model of Multi-Disciplinary Collaboration in Regional Anti-Slavery Efforts
Erica Baer, PhD, Refael Olivares, MA, Johnny McGaha, PhD and Tama Koss Caldarone, JD

Human Trafficking at the US-Mexico Border and the Role of the Commercial Sex Trade Client
Lori Celaya, PhD and Marta Boris-Tarré, PhD

A Quantitative Analysis of Commercial Sex Advertisements During Super Bowl XLVIII
Jesse Bach, PhD, Courtney Mintz, and Jennifer Dohy, MS

Volume 1, Issue 1, February 2014

Unlocking the Science of Slavery
Kevin Bales, PhD

Adopting an Anti-human Trafficking Law in the DR Congo: A Significant Step in the Process of Combating Trafficking
Roger-Claude Liwanga, J.D.

Who’s Watching the Watchdog?: Are the Names of Corporations Mandated to Disclose under the California Transparency in Supply Chain Act Subject to a Public Records Request?
Benjamin Thomas Greer, J.D.

A Truly Free State in the Congo: Slavery and Abolition in Global Historical Perspective
John Donoghue

Slavery Beyond History: Contemporary Concepts of Slavery and Slave Redemption in Ganta (Gamo) of Southern Ethiopia
Bosha Bombe, B.A. in History; M.A. in Social Anthropology

Ending Slavery
Aidan McQuade, PhD