Academic Reports

Academic  |  Government  |  U.N.  |  NGO

Consuming Modern Slavery

This preliminary study investigates how consumers understand modern slavery and their role in perpetuating and/or eradicating modern slavery, bringing together a unique collaboration of investigators who are at the forefront of consumer research in consumption ethics.


Agriculture and Modern Slavery Act Reporting: Increasing engagement but poor quality from a high risk sector

The agricultural sector is considered high risk for forms of labour exploitation, including modern slavery. The International Labour Organisation places agriculture, alongside forestry and fishing, as the sector with the fourth highest proportion of victims of forced labour worldwide.i Within the UK, there is a lack of formal data on the prevalence of slavery within agriculture. However, the characteristics of work within this sector – tasks which are easily replicable and labourers thus easily replaceable, and a reliance on low-skilled seasonal labour – create vulnerability to modern slavery and other forms of exploitation.


Modern Slavery, Environmental Destruction and Climate Change: Fisheries, Field, Forests and Factories

Modern slavery and climate change have emerged as concurrent crises in the contemporary world. While these phenomena have been well-established separately in recent academic and policy-based debates, little discussion has taken place on the interconnections between them. An emerging area of research has begun to interrogate aspects of the nexus between modern slavery, environmental destruction and climate change, but a review of the existing literature in the area remains lacking.


BLOOD BRICKS: Untold Stories of Modern Slavery and Climate Change from Cambodia

In Cambodia, as in many other countries, economic growth has not led to decent work for all. In fact, quite the opposite scenario has been unfolding over the past years: Poor farmers who are unable to earn a living from agriculture as a consequence of climate change move to urban and peri-urban areas and become victims of forced and of bonded labour which are contemporary forms of slavery. In this way, the economic growth which flourishes due to a booming construction industry has created in itself a trap for the poor and vulnerable. It is a vicious cycle which is enabled by development which is not sustainable. Not for the environment and not for the people who are behind it. To break this vicious and dangerous cycle, the interlinkages between contemporary forms of slavery and climate change need to be understood by the government of Cambodia in order to create viable alternatives. The present report illustrates these linkages in an eye-opening way, shedding light on a so far scarcely researched yet so essential subject.


The Modern Day Slavery Survey 2017 Report

The Modern Day Slavery Survey 2017 was designed to shed light on the working practices of supply chain and procurement professionals in their attempts to comply with the Modern Slavery Act 2015. Since the introduction of the Act in 2015, anecdotal evidence from UK businesses has given a glimpse into the dif cult situation procurement, supply chain and HSE teams have been placed into, to ensure they are complying with this new legislation. This report on Modern Day Slavery proves where businesses are currently failing and what they anticipate to do to ensure full compliance in the future.


Fighting human trafficking in conflict: 10 Ideas for Action by the United Nations Security Council

Workshop Participants considered that the role of the Security Council will need to vary, depending on the nature of the human trafficking activity. In some cases, it may be direct and disruptive. In others it may be more normative, or may involve shaping the UN’s field response. In each of these areas, the Security Council can also take action to encourage and support other actors – Member States, regional organizations, the private sector-to pay attention to and address human trafficking in conflict.


Report of the Task Force on Trafficking of Women and Girls

The review includes studies that used qualitative, quantitative, or mixed methodologies; large or small sample sizes; and case studies, ethnography, and community-based participatory research, among other approaches. Each methodological approach offers a unique lens and contributes to a more complete picture of human trafficking.


Employment Practices and Working Conditions in Thailand’s Fishing Sector

To increase the knowledge base on this important issue, the ILO’s Tripartite Action to Protect the Rights of Migrant Workers within and from the Greater Mekong Subregion (the GMS TRIANGLE project) partnered with the Asian Research Center for Migration at Chulalongkorn University’s Institute of Asian Studies to conduct a large-scale survey of employment practices and working conditions within the commercial fishing sector in four major port areas of Thailand.


Understanding Trafficking in Persons in the MENA Region: The Causes, the Forms, the Routes, and the Measures to Combat a Serious Violation of Human Rights

The Protection Project at Johns Hopkins wrote this training manual with two objectives in mind: first, developing a training manual for practitioners specifically tailored to the forms and routes of trafficking in persons in the MENA region; second, addressing in detail some of the specific and particular issues of the region, including the Islamic law perspective on combating trafficking in persons.


Transnational Legal Responses to Illegal Trade in Human Beings

Human trafficking, whether for the purpose of sexual exploitation or forced labor or services, is a transnational crime that requires trans-national responses, including what this paper will refer to as the three EX’s: exchange of information among countries of origin, transit, and destination; extraterritorial jurisdiction that extends to an act of trafficking regardless of the place in which it was committed; and extradition, a mechanism that ensures that a perpetrator of the crime will not be shielded from liability.


The TVPA in Five Colors

The applicable United States law to combat trafficking in persons is The Trafficking Victims Protection Act of 2000 (P.L. 106-386) which was enacted on October 28, 2000. In the following years, this Act was amended by the Trafficking Victims Protection Reauthorization Act of 2003 (H.R. 2620), the Trafficking Victims Protection Reauthorization Act of 2005 (H.R. 972), and the Trafficking Victims Protection Reauthorization Act of 2008 (H.R. 7311). All amendments made to the original Act until the year 2008 are summarized in this document.


Human Trafficking in Puerto Rico: An Invisible Challenge

Provides an in-depth exploration of the problem of human trafficking in Puerto Rico by way of valuable research and current data on the various forms of trafficking, including commercial sexual exploitation, labor exploitation and so- called “purchased marriages.” Drawing on these findings, the study also examines existing government responses and makes a number of specific and actionable recommendations to enhance them.