A Multidisciplinary Exploration of Human Trafficking Solutions

Volume 3, Issue 1
August 2016
ISSN: 2333-7222

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Book Review: Collaborating Against Human Trafficking: Cross Sector Challenges and Practices (Author: Dr. Kirsten Foot)

Eve Aronson, M.A.


In a world increasingly without boundaries, there is a need to (re)shape responses to borderless crimes accordingly. Human trafficking is a transgressive phenomenon by nature and calls for a diverse, multi-sector response. In 2009, the introduction of ‘Partnership’ to the existing Prevention-Protection-Prosecution response model for human trafficking1 signaled an important acknowledgement that this fourth “P” is essential to effective anti-trafficking collaboration. In her book, Collaborating Against Human Trafficking: Cross Sector Challenges and Practices, Dr. Kirsten Foot unpacks the cross-sector implications and manifestations of partnerships through an extensive and critical overview of the contemporary anti-trafficking landscape in the United States. Foot’s book, which is 215 pages and includes six Chapters, also includes extensive Notes and Collaboration Resources sections.


Book Review: Enslaved: The New British Slavery (Author: Rahila Gupta)

Amber L. Hulsey, A.B.D. and David L. Butler, PhD


Enslaved is one of a score of books related to modern-day slavery that has been published since 2006. The attention that modern-day slavery is receiving on the research and publishing front is indicative of the growing awareness of this topic, bringing to light the fact that slavery exists, and thrives, in our modern cities and societies.


Learning From Incidents to Improve Services: Kenyan Victims’ Reaction to a Migrant Labour Scam in Thailand

Oscar Mmbali, B DIV


Incidents that occur at workplace can serve as sources of unique knowledge from which organizations can derive information that can be insightful when drawing lessons on how to improve the functions, structures, or services of the organizations. In May 2015, a human trafficking and migrant labor syndicate was uncovered in Bangkok. Victims were Kenyans who had been lured into the scam, while seeking job opportunities abroad. This is a qualitative case study which describes and interprets Kenyan victims’ reaction to a migrant labor scam in Thailand.


Prosecuting Human Trafficking – Progress in the UK

Kate Garbers


This paper examines the United Kingdom’s approach to prosecutions and convictions of modern slavery and human trafficking offences. It focuses on the UK’s journey and the progress that it has made thus far, from having no legislation by which to tackle this crime to the newly enacted Modern Slavery Act (2015). The paper observes the low numbers of prosecutions leading to convictions as well as the difficulty in effective data collation and recording of trafficking offences. The paper focuses on a non- governmental organisations experience of working with victims and law enforcement agencies, using a sample of seventy four case files to record interactions with the criminal justice process. Further the paper suggests that in order for the Modern Slavery Act (2015) to obtain successful convictions, prosecution should only be seen as part of the solution and not the whole solution. It will only be a successful part of the UK narrative if it is used in conjunction with effective, long-term victim support and prevention efforts.


The Relationship Between Human Rights Violations and Human Trafficking

Julia Muraszkiewicz, LLM


Human trafficking is lucrative crime, often trans border, affecting every country in the world. In the course of this crime victims are subjected heinous experiences. Consequently the crime has been described as a grave violation of human rights. However, there are those that question the legal nature of trafficking in human beings, and whether it really is a violation of human rights. This article explores the relationship between human trafficking and human rights, and analyses what are the impacts of that relationship on State’s duties to fight the crime.


Listening to Local and Foreign Sex Buyers of Men and Women in Cambodia

Samantha Sommer Miller, MAICS and Glenn Miles, PhD and James Havey


Research on prostitution and trafficking has largely focused on the exploitation of girls and young women. This research comes out of the “Listening to the Demand” two-part study by an independent research team on the sex industry in Phnom Penh, Cambodia. “Listening to the Demand” is a series of research exploring often over-looked populations in the anti-trafficking conversation, including men and transgender people. The first of the studies was completed in 2013 and focuses on men who purchased sex with female sex workers. Interviews of 50 Cambodian and 50 foreign heterosexual and bisexual males explored the respondents’ views and use of prostituted women in Southeast Asia’s sex industry. The second part of the research was completed in 2014 and focuses on men who purchase sex with men. In this second part of the project, 51 Cambodian and 23 foreign men who have sex with men were interviewed about their views of prostitution, the individual sex worker, and their experiences of Cambodia’s sex industry. Due to its comparative nature, the research seeks to deliver information on the differences in culture between the foreign and Cambodian men who seek to pay for sexual services. Results point to the need for proper sex and gender education as well as different approaches when planning projects to reach out to men purchasing sex. In gaining a deeper knowledge of the beliefs and behaviours among the demand population, the findings suggest more holistic approaches are needed to combat the exploitation of sexual services in Cambodia.?


Measuring Government Responses to Modern Slavery: Vietnam Case Study

Bodean Hedwards and Katharine Bryant, M.A.


In 2014, the Walk Free Foundation released the second edition of the Global Slavery Index (the Index). The annual report estimated the number of people in modern slavery in 167 countries, assessed government responses to this issue, and examined the factors that contribute to risk of enslavement. This paper will provide an overview of the evolution of the government response component for the 2014 edition of the Index, explore the challenges involved in quantifying a government response to modern slavery through an examination of the situation in Vietnam, and highlight how the conceptual framework attempts to capture the various social, political and cultural intricacies involved in responding to modern slavery. Finally, the paper will discuss some of the limitations of applying a comprehensive framework to varied socio-political contexts, and identify potential ways forward as the Walk Free Foundation strives to address the gaps in research on responses to modern slavery.


Thinking Beyond the Escape: Evaluating the Reintegration of Child Soldiers in Uganda

Jillian LaBranche, M.A.


While the Lord’s Resistance Army has gained notoriety for its brutal tactics and abduction of Ugandan children, little attention has been given to the return and reintegration of these formerly abducted child soldiers. The absence of a formal reintegration program in Uganda has placed the burden of reintegration on international NGOs, but reliance on non-local organizations to successfully reintegrate child soldiers has proven challenging. This paper seeks to evaluate whether the process of reintegration in Uganda has been successful. With an overwhelming lack of up to date and methodologically sound research, variables such as PTSD, domestic violence, alcoholism, violent crime, and primary education rates are evaluated to indicate the current state of Northern Uganda. These variables indicate an unstable environment in Northern Uganda and suggest reintegration has proven unsuccessful in the Acholi region. The successful reintegration of child soldiers is demonstrated to be not merely a Ugandan issue, but an international issue.


Volume 5, Issue 1, October 2019

Sentinel Surveillance and Centring Prevention in Anti-Trafficking Policy and Response
Michael Gallo, Hannah Thinyane

“I demand justice. I hold them all responsible”: Advancing the Enforcement of Anti-slavery Legislation in Mauritania
Rosana Garciandia, Maeve Ryan, Philippa Webb

Can Tech Tame the Outlaw Ocean?
A Book Review of The Outlaw Ocean: Crime and Survival in the Last Untamed Frontier (Author: Ian Urbina) and Film Review of Ghost Fleet (directed by Shannon Service and Jeffrey Waldron)
Bama Athreya, PhD

Special Article

Fixing the Disjuncture, Inverting the Drift: Decolonizing Human Trafficking and Modern Slavery
Dr. Runa Lazzarino

Volume 4, Issue 2, December 2018

Forward to Research Unchained: Multidisciplinary Future of Antislavery Studies
Dr. Jean Allain and Dr. Kevin Bales

Introduction by the editors of the Antislavery Usable Past Postgraduate Research Network Special Issue
Katarina Schwarz, Hannah Jeffery, and Rebecca Nelson, PhD candidates

Approaching Contemporary Slavery Through an Historic Lens: an Interdisciplinary Perspective
Rebecca Nelson and Alicia Kidd, PhD candidates

Securing the Prohibition of Labour Exploitation in Law and Practice: Slavery, Servitude, Forced Labour and Human Trafficking in Italy, Spain and the UK
Dr. Paola Cavanna, Ana Belén Valverde Cano, PhD candidate, and Amy Weatherburn, PhD candidate

Strategic Litigation as a Tool to Combat Modern Slavery
James Sinclair, PhD candidate

Irregular Victims: Investigating the Immigration Status Decisions of Post-NRM Victims of Human Trafficking, the Availability of Eligible Benefits and the Related Impact on Victims of Trafficking
Alexandra Williams-Woods and Yvonne Mellon, PhD candidates

Reasserting Agency: Procedural Justice, Victim-Centricity, and the Right to Remedy for Survivors of Slavery and Related Exploitation
Katarina Schwarz and Jing Geng, PhD candidates

“A Colossal Work of Art”: Antislavery Methods of Visual Protest From 1845 to Today
Hannah Jeffery, PhD candidate, and Dr. Hannah-Rose Murray

‘They don’t play or run or shout…They’re slaves’: The First Survey of Children’s Literature on Modern Slavery
Charlotte James, PhD candidate

Analysing Slavery through Satellite Technology: How Remote Sensing Could Revolutionise Data Collection to Help End Modern Slavery
Bethany Jackson, PhD student, Dr. Kevin Bales, Dr. Sarah Owen, Dr. Jessica Wardlaw, and Dr. Doreen S. Boyd

Collaborating to Identify, Recover and Support Victims of Modern Slavery
Ben Brewster, PhD candidate

Volume 4, Issue 1, Summer 2018

The Developments of Trafficking in Women in Post-Revolution Tunisia
by Racha Haffar

Understanding Child Trafficking within Ghana: Stakeholders’ Perspective
Emma Seyram Hamenoo and Efua Esaaba Mantey Agyire-Tettey

An Economist’s Perspective of Kevin Bales’ “Blood and Earth: Modern Slavery, Ecocide, and the Secret to Saving the World”
Jennifer Bossard, Ph.D

Cultural Competence of Western Psychotherapists in Helping Sex Trade Survivors: An Initial Exploration
Daphne Catherine Spyropoulos, B.A.

Civil Society Organisations in Counter-Trafficking Governance: When Long-Standing Interactions Lead to Solid Partnerships
Chloé Brière, PhD, LLM
Julia Muraszkiewicz, PhD, LLM
Amy Weatherburn, LLB, LLM

Volume 2, Issue 2, December 2015

Partnership, The Fourth P, Enhances HT Service Efforts in Prevention, Protection and Prosecution Arenas
Thomas B. Hofmann, PhD and Yaroslaba Garcia, MA

Repressed Memories: Historical Perspectives on Trafficking and Anti-Trafficking
Eileen P. Scully, PhD

Criminal Legislation for Human Trafficking in the Republic of Moldova
Nicole Fiorentino, MA

A Model of Multi-Disciplinary Collaboration in Regional Anti-Slavery Efforts
Erica Baer, PhD, Refael Olivares, MA, Johnny McGaha, PhD and Tama Koss Caldarone, JD

Human Trafficking at the US-Mexico Border and the Role of the Commercial Sex Trade Client
Lori Celaya, PhD and Marta Boris-Tarré, PhD

A Quantitative Analysis of Commercial Sex Advertisements During Super Bowl XLVIII
Jesse Bach, PhD, Courtney Mintz, and Jennifer Dohy, MS

Volume 2, Issue 1, January 2015

Trafficking in Human Beings as an Enterprise: Highlighting Key Questions About Data Shortage on the Business Side
Julia Muraszkiewicz, PhD and Dr. Hayley Watson

Rise, Unite, Support: Doing “No Harm” in the Anti-Trafficking Movement
Karen Countryman-Roswurm, LMSW, PhD

Toward Assessment of Child Survivors of Restavèk in Haiti: Development and Evaluation of a Locally Adapted Psychosocial Assessment Instrument
Cara L. Kennedy, PhD

Considering a Regional Approach to Combating Human Trafficking in the Caribbean: The ECOWAS Example
Jill St. George, LLB, LLM, PGDIP (BVC) and Tom Durbin, LLB, LLM, PGDIP (BVC)

Volume 1, Issue 2, December 2014

A Theory of Human Trafficking Prevalence and Forecasting: Unlikely Marriage of the Human Security, Transnational Organized Crime, and Human Trafficking Literatures
Davina Durgana

Human Trafficking Specific Jury Instructions: Tools to Increase Prosecutions and Convictions
Alexander Esseesse and Emily Tocci

Human Trafficking Investigations, Implications of Apathy and Inaction, Recommended Solutions
David Hartless

Funding and Capacity Building Fuel Cooperation: A Case Study of Counter-Force Networks Fighting Sexual Exploitation and Trafficking in India
Rodney Green, MSc

Au Pair Scheme: Cultural Exchange or a Pathway to Slavery?
Tina Davis

Human Trafficking NGOs in Thailand: A Two-Site Case Study of the Children Served in Education Programs
Robert Spires, PhD

Economics of Child Mining Labor: Estimation of Corporation’s Profits
Roger-Claude Liwanga, LLM

Book Review: Enslaved: True Stories of Modern Day Slavery, by Jesse Sage and Liora Kasten
Reviewed by Benjamin Thomas Greer

Volume 1, Issue 1,  February2014

Unlocking the Science of Slavery
Kevin Bales, PhD

Adopting an Anti-human Trafficking Law in the DR Congo: A Significant Step in the Process of Combating Trafficking
Roger-Claude Liwanga, J.D.

Who’s Watching the Watchdog?: Are the Names of Corporations Mandated to Disclose under the California Transparency in Supply Chain Act Subject to a Public Records Request?
Benjamin Thomas Greer, J.D.

A Truly Free State in the Congo: Slavery and Abolition in Global Historical Perspective
John Donoghue

Slavery Beyond History: Contemporary Concepts of Slavery and Slave Redemption in Ganta (Gamo) of Southern Ethiopia
Bosha Bombe, B.A. in History; M.A. in Social Anthropology

Ending Slavery
Aidan McQuade, PhD