A Multidisciplinary Exploration of Human Trafficking Solutions

Volume 1, Issue 1
February 2014
ISSN: 2333-7222

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Unlocking the Science of Slavery

Kevin Bales, PhD


It is time to consider where we are going. To understand how we as scholars and activists make the transition from a simplistic, emotive, disparate, and disorganized global anti-slavery movement, to one that is complex, logical, unified and organized. It is clear that achieving that change requires scholarship and knowledge, “joined-up thinking” as the phrase goes. This new journal in reporting research, and creative anti-slavery actions and policies, is part of moving toward not just “the end of the beginning” but ultimately the beginning of the end.


Adopting an Anti-human Trafficking Law in the DR Congo: A Significant Step in the Process of Combating Trafficking

Roger-Claude Liwanga, J.D.


This paper highlights the necessity of adopting a comprehensive anti-human trafficking law in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). The DRC ratified a number of international instruments prohibiting human trafficking, such as the Palermo Protocol, which recommend it to take legislative measures against human trafficking domestically. But so far, the DRC has not yet adopted a comprehensive anti-human trafficking law. With the increasing prevalence of human trafficking, the existing fragmented provisions on trafficking in the DRC (catalogued within the Law 06/018 amending the Penal Code, the Labor Code and the Law 09/001 on the Protection of the Child) are not sufficient to address the scourge, given the limited scope of their regulation of human trafficking. Countless victims of trafficking, particularly adults who are subjected to bonded labor, are unprotected by the law. Following the example of comprehensive anti-human trafficking legislations in the United States, Italy, Burkina Faso, Kenya or South Africa, the DRC should also adopt its own version of comprehensive anti-human trafficking law to increase its likelihood of effectively protecting trafficking victims, investigating trafficking offences, prosecuting trafficking offenders, and deterring potential traffickers. This paper recommends a sketch of a holistic anti-human trafficking law which is adapted to the DRC’s context.


Who’s Watching the Watchdog?: Are the Names of Corporations Mandated to Disclose under the California Transparency in Supply Chain Act Subject to a Public Records Request?

Benjamin Thomas Greer, J.D.


Trafficking is a highly dynamic and fluid criminal phenomenon. Determined traffickers react remarkably well to consumer demand and under-regulated economic sectors and easily adapt to legislative weaknesses. Corporate globalization of manufacturing and storefronts is contributing to human trafficking; aiding in forced labor in becoming the fastest growing and the third most widespread criminal enterprise in the world. As technology advances, allowing greater and easier access to goods from more remote countries, vulnerable populations become easier targets for traffickers to exploit. Understanding U.S. markets are key destinations for goods, enlightened states are looking to bolster their anti-trafficking criminal codes by requiring businesses to better clarify their efforts to discourage human trafficking/forced labor within their supply chains. The California State Legislature has begun an aggressive approach aimed at fostering greater public awareness of slave labor by requiring certain businesses to clearly articulate their anti-trafficking/anti-forced labor policies. California was the first government – local, state or federal – to codify mandatory policy disclosures. The California Transparency in Supply Chains Act of 2010 requires businesses domiciled in California and earning more that $100 million to conspicuously disclose on their publically accessed webpage, what policies, if any, they have implemented to detect and fight slave labor. The legislature intended to equip the common consumer with the needed information to effectively hold businesses accountable for human rights abuses. In order for the public to properly hold businesses accountable for their labor practices, it is essential the names of business subject to the disclosure be made public. The California Public Records Act should be a tool for concerned consumers and advocates to obtain the statutory list of affected companies.


A Truly Free State in the Congo: Slavery and Abolition in Global Historical Perspective

John Donoghue


The differences between slavery now and then are less important than the historical links that bind them, links in an awful chain of bondage that bind the history of the transatlantic slave trade from Africa to the resurgence of slavery in Africa today. As this article illustrates, nowhere is this truer, both in historical and contemporary terms, than in the Congo. The links binding the Congo to the history of human bondage were first forged in the crucible of early modern capitalism and they have been made fast by the proliferation of “free market reform” today, which despite the fundamentalist cant of its advocates, has hardly proven to be a force of human liberation; instead, placing the last 500 years of the Congo region in global context, we can see how capitalism has proven to be the world’s greatest purveyor of human bondage. The article concludes with an argument that the reconstruction of civil society in the Democratic Republic of Congo after decades of war, dictatorship, and neo-colonial rule depends crucially on the continued success of an already impressive Congolese abolitionist movement. Without making an end to slavery, once and for all, civil society can hardly prosper in a country where slavery has historically brought about its destruction.


Slavery Beyond History: Contemporary Concepts of Slavery and Slave Redemption in Ganta (Gamo) of Southern Ethiopia

Bosha Bombe


Slavery was officially abolished in Ethiopia by Emperor Haile Sellassie in 1942. Despite the abolitionary law slaves and their descendants have continually been marginalized in the country (especially in the peripheral parts of southwestern Ethiopia) from the time the law passed until today. In the Gamo community of southern Ethiopia, descendants of former slaves carry the identity of their ancestors and as the result they are often harshly excluded. Today, not only are they considered impure, but their perceived impurity is believed to be contagious; communicable to non-slave descendants during rites of passage. In order to escape the severe discrimination, slave descendants change their identity by redeeming themselves through indigenous ritual mechanism called wozzo ritual. However, the wozzo ritual builds the economy of former slave masters and ritual experts while leaving redeemed slave descendants economically damaged. This study is both diachronic and synchronic; it looks at the history of slavery, contemporary perspectives and practices of slavery and slave redemption in Ganta (Gamo) society of southern Ethiopia.


Ending Slavery

Aidan McQuade, PhD


The issue of discrimination is a fundamental one in slavery: when we look at historical slavery in the Americas we see that racism was both a cause and a consequence of that slavery. Thus has it been, thus will it always be.


Volume 4, Issue 2, December 2018

Forward to Research Unchained: Multidisciplinary Future of Antislavery Studies
Dr. Jean Allain and Dr. Kevin Bales

Introduction by the editors of the Antislavery Usable Past Postgraduate Research Network Special Issue
Katarina Schwarz, Hannah Jeffery, and Rebecca Nelson, PhD candidates

Approaching Contemporary Slavery Through an Historic Lens: an Interdisciplinary Perspective
Rebecca Nelson and Alicia Kidd, PhD candidates

Securing the Prohibition of Labour Exploitation in Law and Practice: Slavery, Servitude, Forced Labour and Human Trafficking in Italy, Spain and the UK
Dr. Paola Cavanna, Ana Belén Valverde Cano, PhD candidate, and Amy Weatherburn, PhD candidate

Strategic Litigation as a Tool to Combat Modern Slavery
James Sinclair, PhD candidate

Irregular Victims: Investigating the Immigration Status Decisions of Post-NRM Victims of Human Trafficking, the Availability of Eligible Benefits and the Related Impact on Victims of Trafficking
Alexandra Williams-Woods and Yvonne Mellon, PhD candidates

Reasserting Agency: Procedural Justice, Victim-Centricity, and the Right to Remedy for Survivors of Slavery and Related Exploitation
Katarina Schwarz and Jing Geng, PhD candidates

“A Colossal Work of Art”: Antislavery Methods of Visual Protest From 1845 to Today
Hannah Jeffery, PhD candidate, and Dr. Hannah-Rose Murray

‘They don’t play or run or shout…They’re slaves’: The First Survey of Children’s Literature on Modern Slavery
Charlotte James, PhD candidate

Analysing Slavery through Satellite Technology: How Remote Sensing Could Revolutionise Data Collection to Help End Modern Slavery
Bethany Jackson, PhD student, Dr. Kevin Bales, Dr. Sarah Owen, Dr. Jessica Wardlaw, and Dr. Doreen S. Boyd

Collaborating to Identify, Recover and Support Victims of Modern Slavery
Ben Brewster, PhD candidate

Volume 4, Issue 1, Summer 2018

The Developments of Trafficking in Women in Post-Revolution Tunisia
by Racha Haffar

Understanding Child Trafficking within Ghana: Stakeholders’ Perspective
Emma Seyram Hamenoo and Efua Esaaba Mantey Agyire-Tettey

An Economist’s Perspective of Kevin Bales’ “Blood and Earth: Modern Slavery, Ecocide, and the Secret to Saving the World”
Jennifer Bossard, Ph.D

Cultural Competence of Western Psychotherapists in Helping Sex Trade Survivors: An Initial Exploration
Daphne Catherine Spyropoulos, B.A.

Civil Society Organisations in Counter-Trafficking Governance: When Long-Standing Interactions Lead to Solid Partnerships
Chloé Brière, PhD, LLM
Julia Muraszkiewicz, PhD, LLM
Amy Weatherburn, LLB, LLM

Volume 3, Issue 1, August 2016

Book Review: Collaborating Against Human Trafficking: Cross Sector Challenges and Practices (Author: Dr. Kirsten Foot)
Reviewed by Eve Aronson, M.A.

Book Review: Enslaved: The New British Slavery (Author: Rahila Gupta)
Reviewed by Amber L. Hulsey, A.B.D. and David L. Butler, Ph.D.

Learning From Incidents to Improve Services: Kenyan Victims’ Reaction to a Migrant Labour Scam in Thailand
Oscar Mmbali, B DIV

Prosecuting Human Trafficking – Progress in the UK
Kate Garbers

The Relationship Between Human Rights Violations and Human Trafficking
Julia Muraszkiewicz, LLM

Listening to Local and Foreign Sex Buyers of Men and Women in Cambodia
Samantha Sommer Miller, MAICS, Glenn Miles, PhD, and James Havey

Measuring Government Responses to Modern Slavery: Vietnam Case Study
Bodean Hedwards, PhD candidate, and Katherine Bryant, M.A.

Thinking Beyond the Escape: Evaluating the Reintegration of Child Soldiers in Uganda
Jillian LaBranche, M.A.

Volume 2, Issue 2, December 2015

Partnership, The Fourth P, Enhances HT Service Efforts in Prevention, Protection and Prosecution Arenas
Thomas B. Hofmann, PhD and Yaroslaba Garcia, MA

Repressed Memories: Historical Perspectives on Trafficking and Anti-Trafficking
Eileen P. Scully, PhD

Criminal Legislation for Human Trafficking in the Republic of Moldova
Nicole Fiorentino, MA

A Model of Multi-Disciplinary Collaboration in Regional Anti-Slavery Efforts
Erica Baer, PhD, Refael Olivares, MA, Johnny McGaha, PhD and Tama Koss Caldarone, JD

Human Trafficking at the US-Mexico Border and the Role of the Commercial Sex Trade Client
Lori Celaya, PhD and Marta Boris-Tarré, PhD

A Quantitative Analysis of Commercial Sex Advertisements During Super Bowl XLVIII
Jesse Bach, PhD, Courtney Mintz, and Jennifer Dohy, MS

Volume 2, Issue 1, January 2015

Trafficking in Human Beings as an Enterprise: Highlighting Key Questions About Data Shortage on the Business Side
Julia Muraszkiewicz, PhD and Dr. Hayley Watson

Rise, Unite, Support: Doing “No Harm” in the Anti-Trafficking Movement
Karen Countryman-Roswurm, LMSW, PhD

Toward Assessment of Child Survivors of Restavèk in Haiti: Development and Evaluation of a Locally Adapted Psychosocial Assessment Instrument
Cara L. Kennedy, PhD

Considering a Regional Approach to Combating Human Trafficking in the Caribbean: The ECOWAS Example
Jill St. George, LLB, LLM, PGDIP (BVC) and Tom Durbin, LLB, LLM, PGDIP (BVC)

Volume 1, Issue 2, July 2014

A Theory of Human Trafficking Prevalence and Forecasting: Unlikely Marriage of the Human Security, Transnational Organized Crime, and Human Trafficking Literatures
Davina Durgana

Human Trafficking Specific Jury Instructions: Tools to Increase Prosecutions and Convictions
Alexander Esseesse and Emily Tocci

Human Trafficking Investigations, Implications of Apathy and Inaction, Recommended Solutions
David Hartless

Funding and Capacity Building Fuel Cooperation: A Case Study of Counter-Force Networks Fighting Sexual Exploitation and Trafficking in India
Rodney Green, MSc

Au Pair Scheme: Cultural Exchange or a Pathway to Slavery?
Tina Davis

Human Trafficking NGOs in Thailand: A Two-Site Case Study of the Children Served in Education Programs
Robert Spires, PhD

Economics of Child Mining Labor: Estimation of Corporation’s Profits
Roger-Claude Liwanga, LLM

Book Review: Enslaved: True Stories of Modern Day Slavery, by Jesse Sage and Liora Kasten
Reviewed by Benjamin Thomas Greer