A Multidisciplinary Exploration of Human Trafficking Solutions

Volume 2, Issue 2
December 2015
ISSN: 2333-7222

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Partnership, The Fourth P, Enhances HT Service Efforts in Prevention, Protection and Prosecution Arenas

Thomas B. Hofmann, PhD and Yaroslaba Garcia, MA


Human Trafficking (HT) literature identifies restricted or narrowly focused funding and difficulty with the coordination of services for HT survivors. This focus group study attempts to discern service strengths and issues at the local level in Lee and Collier counties in Southwest Florida. A three step grounded theory process was utilized in order to analyze the focus group data. The unprecedented level of survivor need was theorized to strain the existing services network. HT cases expose less organized parts of the service network which highlights a lack of organized funding sources and less efficiency. The addition of an essential fourth P (partnership), to prevention, protection and prosecution efforts, would guide efforts toward more evolved service networks. Suggestions include creation of a state level entity which can manage a regionally coordinated case management system, and the establishment of a clearinghouse for data and research.


Repressed Memories: Historical Perspectives on Trafficking and Anti-Trafficking

Eileen P. Scully, PhD


Modern international trafficking in forced labor took hold during the 1850s, and crossed into the twentieth century as a seemingly intractable global phenomenon. Contemporaries described this worldwide enterprise as the “white slave trade.” As shorthand for sex-trafficking, “the white slave trade” has a very long pedigree. The first cross-national, public-private coalition against trafficking in women and children was forged in the late nineteenth century by the London-based National Vigilance Association. This coalition generated the foundational treaties and directional momentum for international anti-trafficking projects across the twentieth century and into the twenty-first.


Criminal Legislation for Human Trafficking in the Republic of Moldova

Nicole Fiorentino, MA


The Republic of Moldova has, in recent years, strengthened its legislation in relation to the crime of human trafficking. The country’s current legislation focuses on four areas: 1) the protection of victims; 2) prosecution of criminals; 3) prevention of the crime; and 4) partnership of stakeholders. This paper will identify and analyze the prosecutorial legislation existing in the Moldovan Criminal Code, initially in the broader context of Trafficking in Human Beings (“THB”) as a whole, and subsequently concentrating on each of the aforementioned areas, applicable to Labor Trafficking, Sex Trafficking and Child Trafficking in the Republic of Moldova (“Moldova”).


A Model of Multi-Disciplinary Collaboration in Regional Anti-Slavery Efforts

Erica Baer, PhD and Refael Olivares, MA and Johnny McGaha, PhD and Tama Koss Caldarone, JD


The hidden nature of the horrendous crime of trafficking in persons makes it difficult to accurately determine the extent of the problem, both nationally and locally. Additionally, the complexities, time consuming investigations, resource and jurisdictional challenges, issues with traumatized victims who are often reluctant to identify, and/or testify against the traffickers, all result in low levels of prosecution. Any successful outcome of these difficult cases mandates the strong communication and collaboration of all agencies involved, including law enforcement, prosecution, and a variety of victim’s services. This paper presents one relatively successful task force model.


Human Trafficking at the US-Mexico Border and the Role of the Commercial Sex Trade Client

Lori Celaya, PhD and Marta Boris-Tarré, PhD


In spite of efforts initiated in 1926 by the League of Nations, (presently, the United Nations. 1946) or by the members of international organizations that signed the most recent protocols to address the issue of human trafficking in November of 2000, the problem persists and positive outcomes have not materialized. Subsequently, Mexico has introduced national efforts to eliminate human trafficking.


A Quantitative Analysis of Commercial Sex Advertisements During Super Bowl XLVIII

Jesse Bach, PhD and Courtney Mintz and Jennifer Dohy, MS


The Super Bowl is commonly known as the single largest human trafficking incident in the United States where an inordinate number of children may be trafficked in or around the host area to engage in commercial sex (Jee, 2011; Jervis, 2011). To examine this claim, our research team mined publicly available data from a major website known to host commercial sex advertisements for three months before and two months after Super Bowl XLVIII, held in East Rutherford, New Jersey.


Volume 5, Issue 1, October 2019

Sentinel Surveillance and Centring Prevention in Anti-Trafficking Policy and Response
Michael Gallo, Hannah Thinyane

“I demand justice. I hold them all responsible”: Advancing the Enforcement of Anti-slavery Legislation in Mauritania
Rosana Garciandia, Maeve Ryan, Philippa Webb

Can Tech Tame the Outlaw Ocean?
A Book Review of The Outlaw Ocean: Crime and Survival in the Last Untamed Frontier (Author: Ian Urbina) and Film Review of Ghost Fleet (directed by Shannon Service and Jeffrey Waldron)
Bama Athreya, PhD

Special Article

Fixing the Disjuncture, Inverting the Drift: Decolonizing Human Trafficking and Modern Slavery
Dr. Runa Lazzarino

Volume 4, Issue 2, December 2018

Forward to Research Unchained: Multidisciplinary Future of Antislavery Studies
Dr. Jean Allain and Dr. Kevin Bales

Introduction by the editors of the Antislavery Usable Past Postgraduate Research Network Special Issue
Katarina Schwarz, Hannah Jeffery, and Rebecca Nelson, PhD candidates

Approaching Contemporary Slavery Through an Historic Lens: an Interdisciplinary Perspective
Rebecca Nelson and Alicia Kidd, PhD candidates

Securing the Prohibition of Labour Exploitation in Law and Practice: Slavery, Servitude, Forced Labour and Human Trafficking in Italy, Spain and the UK
Dr. Paola Cavanna, Ana Belén Valverde Cano, PhD candidate, and Amy Weatherburn, PhD candidate

Strategic Litigation as a Tool to Combat Modern Slavery
James Sinclair, PhD candidate

Irregular Victims: Investigating the Immigration Status Decisions of Post-NRM Victims of Human Trafficking, the Availability of Eligible Benefits and the Related Impact on Victims of Trafficking
Alexandra Williams-Woods and Yvonne Mellon, PhD candidates

Reasserting Agency: Procedural Justice, Victim-Centricity, and the Right to Remedy for Survivors of Slavery and Related Exploitation
Katarina Schwarz and Jing Geng, PhD candidates

“A Colossal Work of Art”: Antislavery Methods of Visual Protest From 1845 to Today
Hannah Jeffery, PhD candidate, and Dr. Hannah-Rose Murray

‘They don’t play or run or shout…They’re slaves’: The First Survey of Children’s Literature on Modern Slavery
Charlotte James, PhD candidate

Analysing Slavery through Satellite Technology: How Remote Sensing Could Revolutionise Data Collection to Help End Modern Slavery
Bethany Jackson, PhD student, Dr. Kevin Bales, Dr. Sarah Owen, Dr. Jessica Wardlaw, and Dr. Doreen S. Boyd

Collaborating to Identify, Recover and Support Victims of Modern Slavery
Ben Brewster, PhD candidate

Volume 4, Issue 1, Summer 2018

The Developments of Trafficking in Women in Post-Revolution Tunisia
by Racha Haffar

Understanding Child Trafficking within Ghana: Stakeholders’ Perspective
Emma Seyram Hamenoo and Efua Esaaba Mantey Agyire-Tettey

An Economist’s Perspective of Kevin Bales’ “Blood and Earth: Modern Slavery, Ecocide, and the Secret to Saving the World”
Jennifer Bossard, Ph.D

Cultural Competence of Western Psychotherapists in Helping Sex Trade Survivors: An Initial Exploration
Daphne Catherine Spyropoulos, B.A.

Civil Society Organisations in Counter-Trafficking Governance: When Long-Standing Interactions Lead to Solid Partnerships
Chloé Brière, PhD, LLM
Julia Muraszkiewicz, PhD, LLM
Amy Weatherburn, LLB, LLM

Volume 3, Issue 1, August 2016

Book Review: Collaborating Against Human Trafficking: Cross Sector Challenges and Practices (Author: Dr. Kirsten Foot)
Reviewed by Eve Aronson, M.A.

Book Review: Enslaved: The New British Slavery (Author: Rahila Gupta)
Reviewed by Amber L. Hulsey, A.B.D. and David L. Butler, Ph.D.

Learning From Incidents to Improve Services: Kenyan Victims’ Reaction to a Migrant Labour Scam in Thailand
Oscar Mmbali, B DIV

Prosecuting Human Trafficking – Progress in the UK
Kate Garbers

The Relationship Between Human Rights Violations and Human Trafficking
Julia Muraszkiewicz, LLM

Listening to Local and Foreign Sex Buyers of Men and Women in Cambodia
Samantha Sommer Miller, MAICS, Glenn Miles, PhD, and James Havey

Measuring Government Responses to Modern Slavery: Vietnam Case Study
Bodean Hedwards, PhD candidate, and Katherine Bryant, M.A.

Thinking Beyond the Escape: Evaluating the Reintegration of Child Soldiers in Uganda
Jillian LaBranche, M.A.

Volume 2, Issue 1, January 2015

Trafficking in Human Beings as an Enterprise: Highlighting Key Questions About Data Shortage on the Business Side
Julia Muraszkiewicz, PhD and Dr. Hayley Watson

Rise, Unite, Support: Doing “No Harm” in the Anti-Trafficking Movement
Karen Countryman-Roswurm, LMSW, PhD

Toward Assessment of Child Survivors of Restavèk in Haiti: Development and Evaluation of a Locally Adapted Psychosocial Assessment Instrument
Cara L. Kennedy, PhD

Considering a Regional Approach to Combating Human Trafficking in the Caribbean: The ECOWAS Example
Jill St. George, LLB, LLM, PGDIP (BVC) and Tom Durbin, LLB, LLM, PGDIP (BVC)

Volume 1, Issue 2, December 2014

A Theory of Human Trafficking Prevalence and Forecasting: Unlikely Marriage of the Human Security, Transnational Organized Crime, and Human Trafficking Literatures
Davina Durgana

Human Trafficking Specific Jury Instructions: Tools to Increase Prosecutions and Convictions
Alexander Esseesse and Emily Tocci

Human Trafficking Investigations, Implications of Apathy and Inaction, Recommended Solutions
David Hartless

Funding and Capacity Building Fuel Cooperation: A Case Study of Counter-Force Networks Fighting Sexual Exploitation and Trafficking in India
Rodney Green, MSc

Au Pair Scheme: Cultural Exchange or a Pathway to Slavery?
Tina Davis

Human Trafficking NGOs in Thailand: A Two-Site Case Study of the Children Served in Education Programs
Robert Spires, PhD

Economics of Child Mining Labor: Estimation of Corporation’s Profits
Roger-Claude Liwanga, LLM

Book Review: Enslaved: True Stories of Modern Day Slavery, by Jesse Sage and Liora Kasten
Reviewed by Benjamin Thomas Greer

Volume 1, Issue 1,  February2014

Unlocking the Science of Slavery
Kevin Bales, PhD

Adopting an Anti-human Trafficking Law in the DR Congo: A Significant Step in the Process of Combating Trafficking
Roger-Claude Liwanga, J.D.

Who’s Watching the Watchdog?: Are the Names of Corporations Mandated to Disclose under the California Transparency in Supply Chain Act Subject to a Public Records Request?
Benjamin Thomas Greer, J.D.

A Truly Free State in the Congo: Slavery and Abolition in Global Historical Perspective
John Donoghue

Slavery Beyond History: Contemporary Concepts of Slavery and Slave Redemption in Ganta (Gamo) of Southern Ethiopia
Bosha Bombe, B.A. in History; M.A. in Social Anthropology

Ending Slavery
Aidan McQuade, PhD