Laws to Combat Sex Trafficking: An Overview of International, National, Provincial and Municipal Laws and their Enforcement
This report examines current legislation, regulations and law enforcement issues relating to human trafficking for sexual exploitation at four levels: the international, national, state/provincial, and municipal. The report is part of on-going research for the Task Force on the Trafficking of Women and Girls in Canada, convened by the Canadian Women’s Foundation (CWF).
The overall purpose of the research is to analyze Canada’s legal framework for addressing sex trafficking, place Canada’s current legislative responses to sex trafficking at federal, provincial and municipal levels in the context of international obligations and recent developments in other countries, and to examine possible responses and innovative practices for the law and law enforcement. The report is intended to aid the Task Force in formulating its programming and policy responses to the significant problem of sexual exploitation of women and girls in Canada.
The report answers diverse inquiries posed by the Canadian Women’s Foundation following their preliminary consultations with human trafficking stakeholders from 2011 to 2012. The purpose of the report is to provide a baseline from which the Task Force can work. The report gathers information on the prevalence of human trafficking in Canada in 2013, examines the profile of victims and the techniques of traffickers, and explores newer areas in the human trafficking discussion – such as the demand to purchase sex in Canada, the role of the internet in sex trafficking, and the social and economic costs of sex trafficking. More detailed reports in other topic areas, such as relevant laws, law enforcement and service provision will follow this report over the course of the year.
Sexual Exploitation and Trafficking of Aboriginal Women and Girls – Literature Review and Key Informant Interviews
This research was prepared for the Canadian Women’s Foundation’s National Task Force on Trafficking of Women and Girls. This research will form a comprehensive picture on the state of human trafficking for sexual exploitation of Aboriginal women and girls in Canada. The review will help to inform the work of NWAC and the Canadian Women’s Foundation’s Task Force and aid in the Task Force’s preparations to identify and suggest key solutions for a national anti- trafficking strategy effectively addressing sexual exploitation of Aboriginal women and girls in Canada.
On September 18th, 2013 the Canadian Women’s Foundation brought together 46 of Canada’s leading providers of services for trafficked women and girls. THE GOAL: To identify the services and system changes that could: prevent trafficking, respond to the immediate needs of trafficked womenand girls, and help women and girls leave exploitive situations andrebuild their lives. During this full-day roundtable, representatives from women’s, Aboriginal and immigrant-serving organizations, police departments, shelters, hospitals, community organizations and anti-trafficking initiatives generated hundreds of ideas, practices and recommendations. For many participants, this was their first chance to meet with their counterparts from across Canada. It was also a unique opportunity for police and nurses, shelter workers and women’s advocates to meet together as colleagues in the trafficking sector.
Summarizes the discussions at the National experiential Women’s roundtable, hosted on December 5th and 6th, 2013 by the Canadian Women’s Foundation Task Force on Trafficking of Women and Girls in Canada.
“NO MORE”: Ending Sex-Trafficking In Canada – Report of the National Task Force on Sex Trafficking of Women and Girls in Canada
The Task Force was created and funded by the Canadian Women’s Foundation to investigate the nature and extent of sex trafficking in Canada, and to recommend a national anti-trafficking strategy to inform the work of the Canadian Women’s Foundation.
The findings and recommendations contained in this report were developed to assist the Canadian Women’s Foundation in creating its own five-year national anti-trafficking strategy. It is also hoped the recommendations will inform and offer guidance to other stakeholders working in this area.
Girls, often as young as 13, are being lured, recruited and procured into sexual slavery by predators who profit from their endeavors, rob them of their dignity, and often wound them with lifelong scars, changing forever the trajectories of otherwise happy lives.
Poverty, violence and widespread gender inequity are the preconditions for trafficking, but not the only factors. Any one of the previously trafficked girls and women we have come to know could be our own daughter, our sister, our niece, our aunt. The diversity of those who are trafficked is sobering: Any girl, anywhere, at any time.
Becoming Hope: Stories, Reflections and Recommendations about Trafficking and Slavery Aftercare in the UK
Presents the stories of Kate, Amy and Natalie (not their real names). These survivors approached SHF for long-term aftercare support; in one way or another they had been let down by the system, and they wanted us to tell their stories. Demonstrates the challenges they have faced, the limitations of the National Referral Mechanism (NRM), and the insufficient support provided by many social and government services.
Examines the link between cotton and human trafficking by analyzing: the different tiers in the fashion supply chain in which trafficking occurs; media coverage of countries involved in the fashion industry across the world related to the issue; how Non-Governmental Organisations drive media awareness and influence key initiatives for change; and, the role companies have to play in establishing a traffik-free fashion industry.
Forced Labor in the Production of Electronic Goods in Malaysia: A Comprehensive Study of Scope and Characteristics
Malaysia’s electronics sector workforce includes hundreds of thousands of foreign migrant workers who come to Malaysia on the promise of a good salary and steady work – an opportunity to make a better life for themselves and their families. But many are subject to high recruitment fees, personal debt, complicated recruitment processes, lack of transparency about their eventual working conditions, and inadequate legal protections. Unscrupulous behavior on the part of employers or third-party employment agents1 can exacerbate vulnerability to exploitation, but the system in which foreign workers are recruited, placed and managed is complex enough to create vulnerability even in the absence of willful intent to exploit. The conditions faced by foreign electronics workers in Malaysia have the potential to result in forced labor. In 2012, Verité received funding from the US Department of Labor to conduct a study to determine whether such forced labor does, in fact, exist in the production of electronic goods in Malaysia.
Provides recent examples of problems that have long plagued the industry in Thailand. Since the late 1980s, Thailand’s increasing prosperity and low unemployment rate have led many Thai citizens to turn away from low-paid work in the country’s more labour-intensive sectors, including construction, fishing and seafood processing. At the same time, Thailand’s comparatively underdeveloped neighbours have provided a cheap and plentiful supply of migrant labour, which has acted to discourage businesses from investing in labour-saving production processes.22 Consequently, entire sections of the Thai economy have become strongly reliant on migrant labour. Workers from Myanmar, Laos and Cambodia now constitute up to 10 per cent of Thailand’s workforce, and as much as 90 per cent in the seafood industry.
2008 Transition Report for the Next Presidential Administration by The Action Group to End Human Trafficking and Modern-Day Slavery. The Action Group is comprised of: the Alliance to Stop Slavery and End Trafficking, Coalition to Abolish Slavery & Trafficking, Free the Slaves, International Justice Mission, Not For Sale Campaign, Polaris Project, Ricky Martin Foundation, Solidarity Center, and Vital Voices Global Partnership. The Action Group is a U.S.-based, non-partisan group of complementary organizations dedicated to abolishing modern-day slavery and human trafficking.
Compiled using information from public sources, from 90 interviews with professionals engaged in anti-trafficking work and by reviewing 390 individual cases. The information was obtained between September 2009 and April 2010.
The depth and breadth of this three-year, multi-country initiative offers a unique opportunity for reflection on approaches to researching forced and exploitative labor among hidden and highly vulnerable populations.
The aim of this research was to provide relevant qualitative findings concerning the internal trafficking of persons for the purposes of commercial sexual exploitation, forced labor, and the removal of organs.
This report shows that despite nearly a decade of international engagement and the June 2012 signing of a Joint Action Plan to end the recruitment and use of children between the Myanmar government and the UN, children continue to be recruited and used as soldiers by the Tatmadaw Kyi (Myanmar army) and the Border Guard Forces (BGFs) in the country.
Result of an analysis of preventative measures put in place between April 2009 and June 2011. The report was compiled using information from public sources and from 80 interviews with professionals engaged in anti-trafficking work.
Identifies the use of slavery-like practices involved in the manufacture of garments in India for international markets: the use of forced labour of young women and girls in the factories of Southern India, particularly the spinning mills around Tirupur. Also identifies the routine use of child labour in garment finishing in Delhi. Details of international companies whose supply chains appear to be affected by some of these forms of forced labour are given in chapter four of this report.
A study of the reasons why bonded labour, a contemporary form of slavery, persists in India, Nepal and Pakistan. In particular, it examines the effectiveness of state interventions against bonded labour.
The Enslavement of Dalit and Indigenous Communities in India, Nepal and Pakistan Through Debt Bondage
Describes the gross violation of the rights of millions of people in India, Pakistan and Nepal who are trapped in debt bondage and forced to work to repay loans. It explores evidence which shows that 80-98 per cent of bonded labourers are from communities designated as dalits.
Reviews the literature available on child marriage to show that a potentially high proportion of children in marriage are in slavery. Deploys a wealth of material already available on the subject of child marriage to present how many of these real-life incidences in fact amount to slavery and slavery-like practices under international law, based on a thorough analysis of the most relevant UN and ILO standards.
Based on interviews with around 3,000 children the report is a study into the psychosocial wellbeing of child domestic workers across six countries in three continents (Peru, Costa Rica, Togo, Tanzania, India and Philippines).
Examines the practice in daaras (Koranic schools) of sending boys as young as five years old out to beg for several hours a day. Often living far from home and in squalid conditions, talibés are frequently subjected to abuse if they fail to meet their begging quotas.
Finds that trafficking of children to cocoa farms in Côte d’Ivoire still occurs. The research found significant numbers of young people in Mali and Burkina Faso who had worked as children in cocoa farms in Côte d’Ivoire in the last five years. The practices occur in the context of large-scale movements of people within the region including the trafficking of children to other agricultural activities and to other sectors.