A Multidisciplinary Exploration of Human Trafficking Solutions

Volume 4, Issue 1, Summer 2018

The Developments of Trafficking in Women in Post-Revolution Tunisia

Volume 4, Issue 2, December 2018

Racha Haffar, M.A.

Founder and President of ‘Not 4 Trade’, the first anti-human trafficking NGO in Tunisia. Fulbright Alumna at the University of Kentucky. Double Masters’ degrees in International Relations and International Development and Cooperation from the Universities of Tunis and Palermo.



The Tunisian Uprising of 2011 played as a catalyst in relation to the development of trafficking in women into reaching today’s notions, categories and numbers of victims. The increase in the rate of female victims of trafficking at the local and transnational levels has urged the Tunisian authorities to pay more attention to the shortcomings of the laws and the legal national framework in general. This study will discuss the historical and legal developments of the issue of trafficking in women in Tunisia. It will explore the case studies of certain categories of local and transnational female victims and focus on the re-victimization of women throughout the trafficking process and after. My research will depend basically on first-hand resources for accurate, yet new information, statistics and testimonies. I obtained my information through interviewing governmental and non-governmental officials. I have reached out to all concerned civil society actors who work on the issue of trafficking for statistics and data relevant to victims and traffickers and also in an attempt to know the role these actors play in fighting trafficking. This research depends on official data from different governmental bodies, mainly the Ministry of Interior and Justice. I am using also newspapers articles and things written on the different forms of internal and transnational trafficking in Tunisia like the Jihad al-Nikah3 and forced prostitution, and others examples. I managed to collect data through conducting interviews with officials, getting statistics and having access to law cases from Tunisian courts.

Understanding Child Trafficking within Ghana: Stakeholders’ Perspective

Volume 4, Issue 2, December 2018

Emma Seyram Hamenoo

Lecturer, Department of Social Work, University of Ghana

Efua Esaaba Mantey Agyire-Tettey

Lecturer, Department of Social Work, University of Ghana



Human trafficking though internationally defined (UN, 2000), needs a national definition relevant to its occurrence within the territorial jurisprudence of the nation experiencing it. In Ghana, the Human Trafficking Act broadly defines human trafficking as: the recruitment, transportation, transfer, harbouring, trading or receipt of persons within and across national borders by a) the use of threats, force or other forms of coercion, abduction, fraud, deception, the abuse of power or exploitation of vulnerability, or b) giving or receiving payments and benefits to achieve consent. Exploitation shall include at the minimum, induced prostitution and other forms of sexual exploitation, forced labour or services, slavery or practices similar to slavery, servitude or the removal of organs. Placement for sale, bonded placement, temporary placement, placement as service where exploitation by someone else is the motivating factor shall also constitute trafficking (Article1: Clause 1-3). This definition provides no distinction between the trafficking of adults and the trafficking of children. Although article 42 of the Human Trafficking Act (2005) makes reference to the possibility of children being victims of human trafficking, it falls short of an explicit definition of the concept, setting the scene for multiple definitions, with the inevitable difficulties that emerge from such legal imprecision.

An Economist’s Perspective of Kevin Bales’ “Blood and Earth: Modern Slavery, Ecocide, and the Secret to Saving the World”

Volume 4, Issue 2, December 2018

Jennifer Bossard, Ph.D

Associate Professor of Economics, Doane University



To show how consumers bookend the production process and how they can impact supply chains, I use evidence from Kevin Bales’ Blood and Earth: Modern Slavery, Ecocide, and the Secret to Saving the World (2016). In it, Bales describes the production process of a variety of products that contain slavery and ecocide, emphasizing the relationship between slavery, ecocide, and consumerism. In one part of the book, he describes a four-step process that illustrates how consumerism leads to slavery and ecocide, and in another part, he describes a supply chain that begins with slavery and ecocide and ends with the final consumer. In this paper, I begin by summarizing the four-step process and the supply chain and then link the two to show how consumers are found at the beginning and the end of the production process. I then describe the ‘books’ of slavery and ecocide and conclude with the ‘bookends,’ suggesting ways that consumers can impact the supply chain to reduce, and possibly eliminate, slavery and ecocide.

Cultural Competence of Western Psychotherapists in Helping Sex Trade Survivors: An Initial Exploration

Volume 4, Issue 2, December 2018

Daphne Catherine Spyropoulos, B.A.

MSc Student, Deree – The American College of Greece



Sex-trafficking survivors that come from the Developing world and who become free in the west, can receive help from western psychotherapists. A therapist who is able to provide help to a former sex-slave of this origin is answering to a need for culturally competent mental health professionals. To serve this goal, the author analyses the example of Nigerian women who become free in the west and provides information about their background that could be useful in session. Parallel to this discussion, the question of whether cross-cultural differences can be overcome in therapy in an ethical way arises.

Civil Society Organisations in Counter-Trafficking Governance: When Long-Standing Interactions Lead to Solid Partnerships

Volume 4, Issue 2, December 2018

Chloé Brière, PhD, LLM

Post-doctoral researcher. After defending her thesis on the external dimension of the EU’s policy against trafficking in human beings, she now works on projects addressing demand for sexual services, and research linked to EU criminal and migration law.

Julia Muraszkiewicz, PhD, LLM

Research analyst at Trilateral Research Ltd, where she works on issues of humanitarian crisis, migration, human trafficking and ethics.

Amy Weatherburn, LLB, LLM

PhD candidate conducting research on trafficking in human beings for the purposes labour exploitation, analysing the effectiveness of the implementation of the European legal framework and the handling of labour exploitation in law.



Civil society involvement in counter-trafficking governance has substantially evolved, and today reaches an unprecedented level. The present paper aims at discussing different aspects of their involvement and their unique position across multiple levels of governance: i) their role in drafting legal instruments; ii) their role in EU’s policy and iii) their impact in securing the rights of victims, using the example of the trafficked person’s right not to be punished. We highlight that civil society actors, at all multi-governance levels from the global to the local, play an integral role in securing an effective comprehensive counter-trafficking response.

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