A Multidisciplinary Exploration of Human Trafficking Solutions

Volume 3, Issue 1, August 2016

Book Review: “Collaborating Against Human Trafficking: Cross Sector Challenges and Practices” (Author: Dr. Kirsten Foot)

Volume 3, Issue 1, August 2016

Eve Aronson, M.A.

Holds a dual cum laude Master’s degree from Utrecht University in the Netherlands and Central European University in Hungary. She writes about issues of human trafficking in the US and the Netherlands.



In her book, Foot delves into the factors that challenge optimal collaboration against human trafficking among sectors such as service providers (VSPs), survivor-activists, law enforcement, governments, NGOs, businesses and faith-based organizations (FBOs). Foot takes conventional anti-trafficking efforts a step further, arguing for a more intersectional approach to anti-human trafficking collaboration. Based on the underlying assertion that “[c]ollaboration is a complex interaction between human agency, interpersonal dynamics and the wider social, political, and economic contexts in which it takes place,” Foot boldly argues that in order for anti-trafficking efforts to be truly constructive, effective and lasting, they must not only take systemic challenges into account but also “societal forces” such as race and gender that shape the beliefs, values and positioning of anti-trafficking stakeholders.

Book Review: “Enslaved: The New British Slavery” (Author: Rahila Gupta)

Volume 3, Issue 1, August 2016

Amber L. Hulsey, A.B.D.

International Development Doctoral Program, The University of Southern Mississippi.

David L. Butler, PhD

Department of Political Science, International Development and International Affairs, The University of Southern Mississippi.



In July 2014, the authors were in London. During one afternoon, one of the authors walked from North London through the central district across the Thames River to the Southbank. During this walk, the author found a vibrant city with trade, tourists and culture all engaged in a hive of activity. During one sleepless evening, the author took the same walk between the hours of 2am-5am. The city of London was transformed at this time. Instead of vendors and tourists engaging in a silent capitalist dance, there were drug dealers, gangs, prostitutes, pimps, and law enforcement in clusters around the city. The transformation from a tourist and financial mecca to that of a haven for vices and criminal activity by the movement of the hands on tower clock that houses Big Ben was eye opening. The fact that London has a robust seedy underbelly that emerged as prominent as the Beefeaters in the Tower of London would not shock anyone who has read Rahila Gupta’s Enslaved: The New British Slavery. Gupta is a writer, journalist and member of the Management Committee of Southall Black Sisters (SBS), a not-for-profit organization servicing the needs of black and minority ethnic women. She is the author or co-author of at least half a dozen additional books.

Learning From Incidents to Improve Services: Kenyan Victims’ Reaction to a Migrant Labour Scam in Thailand

Volume 3, Issue 1, August 2016

Oscar Mmbali, B DIV

Doctoral Candidate and researcher at the Center for Philanthropy and Civil Society, National Institute of Development Administration, Bangkok, Thailand.



Incidents that occur at workplace can serve as sources of unique knowledge from which organizations can derive information that can be insightful when drawing lessons on how to improve the functions, structures, or services of the organizations. In May 2015, a human trafficking and migrant labor syndicate was uncovered in Bangkok. Victims were Kenyans who had been lured into the scam, while seeking job opportunities abroad. This is a qualitative case study which describes and interprets Kenyan victims’ reaction to a migrant labor scam in Thailand.

Prosecuting Human Trafficking – Progress in the UK

Volume 3, Issue 1, August 2016

Kate Garbers

Managing Director of the multi-award-winning non-governmental organisation Unseen.



This paper examines the United Kingdom’s approach to prosecutions and convictions of modern slavery and human trafficking offences. It focuses on the UK’s journey and the progress that it has made thus far, from having no legislation by which to tackle this crime to the newly enacted Modern Slavery Act (2015). The paper observes the low numbers of prosecutions leading to convictions as well as the difficulty in effective data collation and recording of trafficking offences. The paper focuses on a non-governmental organisations experience of working with victims and law enforcement agencies, using a sample of seventy four case files to record interactions with the criminal justice process. Further the paper suggests that in order for the Modern Slavery Act (2015) to obtain successful convictions, prosecution should only be seen as part of the solution and not the whole solution. It will only be a successful part of the UK narrative if it is used in conjunction with effective, long-term victim support and prevention efforts.

The Relationship Between Human Rights Violations and Human Trafficking

Volume 3, Issue 1, August 2016

Julia Muraszkiewicz, LLM

PhD Candidate at the Fundamental Rights and Constitutionalism Research Group at the Vrije Universiteit Brussel



The exploitation of human beings has existed since ancient times; for instance it is hard to imagine the building of the Roman Empire without the work of slaves. Today, stories of exploitation in the form of trafficking in human beings (THB) continue to emerge from survivors, activists, journalists, academics and policy makers. ‘Some victims are lured or deceived into their own slavery due to being misled by their traffickers while there are other who are captured through kidnapping or by being sold as a commodity and are forced to work as slaves.’ Quantifying human trafficking is exceptionally hard, it is a clandestine activity and one whose victims more often then not are too scared too seek assistance. There fear is two fold; on one hand they do not want to be retaliated by their traffickers and on the other they fear the authorities – particularly the fear of deportation or criminal prosecution. What is known however is that ‘human trafficking knows no boundaries’, it prays on innocent and vulnerable individuals and these individuals can be found anywhere. The victims of human trafficking can be of either gender and of any age.

Listening to Local and Foreign Sex Buyers of Men and Women in Cambodia

Volume 3, Issue 1, August 2016

Samantha Sommer Miller, MAICS

Currently provides investigative consultation and training to faith-based organizations that are responding to allegations of child abuse and inappropriate behavior worldwide. Her research focuses on restorative justice and better understanding the demand segment of human trafficking

Glenn Miles, PhD

Lecturer in Childhood Studies and Child Public Health at Swansea University in Wales, UK, and Senior Research Advisor for upQ International.

James Havey

Currently working in collaboration with an NGO called Chab Dai as an LGBTQ social activist and researcher studying international standards in after-care and re-integration services and the experiences of males who were formerly sex workers.



Research on prostitution and trafficking has largely focused on the exploitation of girls and young women. This research comes out of the “Listening to the Demand” two-part study by an independent research team on the sex industry in Phnom Penh, Cambodia. “Listening to the Demand” is a series of research exploring often over-looked populations in the anti-trafficking conversation, including men and transgender people. The first of the studies was completed in 2013 and focuses on men who purchased sex with female sex workers. Interviews of 50 Cambodian and 50 foreign heterosexual and bisexual males explored the respondents’ views and use of prostituted women in Southeast Asia’s sex industry. The second part of the research was completed in 2014 and focuses on men who purchase sex with men. In this second part of the project, 51 Cambodian and 23 foreign men who have sex with men were interviewed about their views of prostitution, the individual sex worker, and their experiences of Cambodia’s sex industry. Due to its comparative nature, the research seeks to deliver information on the differences in culture between the foreign and Cambodian men who seek to pay for sexual services. Results point to the need for proper sex and gender education as well as different approaches when planning projects to reach out to men purchasing sex. In gaining a deeper knowledge of the beliefs and behaviours among the demand population, the findings suggest more holistic approaches are needed to combat the exploitation of sexual services in Cambodia.

Measuring Government Responses to Modern Slavery: Vietnam Case Study

Volume 3, Issue 1, August 2016

Bodean Hedwards

PhD candidate, Former Researcher, Southeast Asia, Walk Free Foundation

Katharine Bryant, M.A.

Research Manager, Walk Free Foundation



In 2014, the Walk Free Foundation released the second edition of the Global Slavery Index (the Index). The annual report estimated the number of people in modern slavery in 167 countries, assessed government responses to this issue, and examined the factors that contribute to risk of enslavement. This paper will provide an overview of the evolution of the government response component for the 2014 edition of the Index, explore the challenges involved in quantifying a government response to modern slavery through an examination of the situation in Vietnam, and highlight how the conceptual framework attempts to capture the various social, political and cultural intricacies involved in responding to modern slavery. Finally, the paper will discuss some of the limitations of applying a comprehensive framework to varied socio-political contexts, and identify potential ways forward as the Walk Free Foundation strives to address the gaps in research on responses to modern slavery.

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