A Multidisciplinary Exploration of Human Trafficking Solutions

Volume 2, Issue 2, December 2015

Partnership, The Fourth P, Enhances HT Service Efforts in Prevention, Protection and Prosecution Arenas

Volume 2, Issue 2, December 2015

Thomas B. Hofmann, PhD

Professor of Clinical Mental Health Counseling at Hodges University in Fort Myers, Florida. Licensed Social Worker. Licensed Marriage and Family Therapist

Yaroslaba Garcia, MA

Doctoral Candidate. Clinical Director at Abuse Counseling and Treatment, Inc. President of the Southwest Florida Coalition Against Human Trafficking. Adjunct Professor at Hodges University



Human Trafficking (HT) literature identifies restricted or narrowly focused funding and difficulty with the coordination of services for HT survivors. This focus group study attempts to discern service strengths and issues at the local level in Lee and Collier counties in Southwest Florida. A three step grounded theory process was utilized in order to analyze the focus group data. The unprecedented level of survivor need was theorized to strain the existing services network. HT cases expose less organized parts of the service network which highlights a lack of organized funding sources and less efficiency. The addition of an essential fourth P (partnership), to prevention, protection and prosecution efforts, would guide efforts toward more evolved service networks. Suggestions include creation of a state level entity which can manage a regionally coordinated case management system, and the establishment of a clearinghouse for data and research.

Repressed Memories: Historical Perspectives on Trafficking and Anti-Trafficking

Volume 2, Issue 2, December 2015

Eileen P. Scully, PhD

Historian on the faculty of Bennington College in Vermont



Modern international trafficking in forced labor took hold during the 1850s, and crossed into the twentieth century as a seemingly intractable global phenomenon. Contemporaries described this worldwide enterprise as the “white slave trade.” As shorthand for sex-trafficking, “the white slave trade” has a very long pedigree. The first cross-national, public-private coalition against trafficking in women and children was forged in the late nineteenth century by the London-based National Vigilance Association. This coalition generated the foundational treaties and directional momentum for international anti-trafficking projects across the twentieth century and into the twenty-first.

Criminal Legislation for Human Trafficking in the Republic of Moldova

Volume 2, Issue 2, December 2015

Nicole Fiorentino, MA

Doctoral Candidate, International Conflict Management, Kennesaw State University. MA, Central and Eastern European Studies, La Salle University. BA, History, San Diego State University



The Republic of Moldova has, in recent years, strengthened its legislation in relation to the crime of human trafficking. The country’s current legislation focuses on four areas: 1) the protection of victims; 2) prosecution of criminals; 3) prevention of the crime; and 4) partnership of stakeholders. This paper will identify and analyze the prosecutorial legislation existing in the Moldovan Criminal Code, initially in the broader context of Trafficking in Human Beings (“THB”) as a whole, and subsequently concentrating on each of the aforementioned areas, applicable to Labor Trafficking, Sex Trafficking and Child Trafficking in the Republic of Moldova (“Moldova”). Not unlike many countries, the legislative measures in Moldova remain “top-heavy”. The laws are existent and known by government, law enforcement and Non-Governmental Organizations (“NGOs”), yet affect limited change for those actually impacted by the crime. However, legislative measures remain critical in counter trafficking and legislation put forth by a government is often the first step in pushing these efforts forward. Therefore, a thorough examination of the legislation is necessary if a decrease of trafficking is to result.

A Model of Multi-Disciplinary Collaboration in Regional Anti-Slavery Efforts

Volume 2, Issue 2, December 2015

Erica Baer, PhD

Instructor of Forensics, Department of Justice Studies, Florida Gulf Coast University. PhD, Forensic Psychology, Alliant International University. Research associate with the Resource Center on Human Trafficking at FGCU

Refael Olivares, MA

Coordinator, Resource Center on Human Trafficking, Florida Gulf Coast University. MA, Counseling Psychology, Hodges University. Several years experience in agencies serving human trafficking victims. Past chair of the SW Florida Coalition on Human Trafficking and until his appointment in 2013 as Coordinator of the FGCU Resource Center served as Program Director for Human Trafficking for Catholic Charities, SW Florida Region.

Johnny McGaha, PhD

Professor and Director, Resource Center on Human Trafficking, Florida Gulf Coast University, Department of Justice Studies. Several publications and national presentations on Human Trafficking. Training consultant to the Department of State/Homeland Security and to the Republic of Moldova’s Center to Combat Trafficking in Persons. Program evaluator DOJ grants on Human Trafficking and Victims Services, Fort Myers, Florida. Former Chair, Lee County (FL) Task Force on Human trafficking. Founder, Resource Center on Human Trafficking

Tama Koss Caldarone JD

Assistant U.S. Attorney, Middle District of Florida. JD, University of Florida. Several years experience as federal prosecutor including successful prosecution of trafficking cases. Currently Chair, SW Florida Regional Task Force on Human Trafficking



The hidden nature of the horrendous crime of trafficking in persons makes it difficult to accurately determine the extent of the problem, both nationally and locally. Additionally, the complexities, time consuming investigations, resource and jurisdictional challenges, issues with traumatized victims who are often reluctant to identify, and/or testify against the traffickers, all result in low levels of prosecution. Any successful outcome of these difficult cases mandates the strong communication and collaboration of all agencies involved, including law enforcement, prosecution, and a variety of victim’s services. This paper presents one relatively successful task force model.

Human Trafficking at the US-Mexico Border and the Role of the Commercial Sex Trade Client

Volume 2, Issue 2, December 2015

Lori Celaya, PhD

Assistant Professor of Spanish, Latin America, Border and US Latino Studies, University of Idaho Department of Modern Languages and Cultures

Marta Boris-Tarré, PhD

University of Idaho Department of Modern Languages and Cultures



In spite of efforts initiated in 1926 by the League of Nations, (presently, the United Nations, 1946) or by the members of international organizations that signed the most recent protocols to address the issue of human trafficking in November of 2000, the problem persists and positive outcomes have not materialized. Subsequently, Mexico has introduced national efforts to eliminate human trafficking. In fact, these initiatives are subsequent to the efforts launched by the United Nations in 2000 and were passed in 2007, specifically to address these human rights violations: the first one, “The General Law Granting Access to Women to a Violence-Free Life,” and a second decree, specifically addressing human trafficking, “Law to Prevent and Condemn Human Trafficking” (Acharya 2012, 638-9). These laws are significant, since prior to their creation no legal framework existed in Mexico to address human trafficking.

A Quantitative Analysis of Commercial Sex Advertisements During Super Bowl XLVIII

Volume 2, Issue 2, December 2015

Jesse Bach, PhD

Cleveland State University. Executive Director of The Imagine Foundation

Courtney Mintz

Student, Business Administration and Criminal Justice, University of Dubuque

Jennifer Dohy, MS

Doctoral Candidate, MS and BS in Education, Cleveland State University



The Super Bowl is commonly known as the single largest human trafficking incident in the United States where an inordinate number of children may be trafficked in or around the host area to engage in commercial sex (Jee, 2011; Jervis, 2011). To examine this claim, our research team mined publicly available data from a major website known to host commercial sex advertisements for three months before and two months after Super Bowl XLVIII, held in East Rutherford, New Jersey.

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