JOURNAL OF MODERN SLAVERY
A Multidisciplinary Exploration of Human Trafficking Solutions

COVID-19 SUPPLEMENTAL ISSUE

ABSTRACTS

Volume 5, Issue 2                2020

Guest Editor
Dr. Helen McCabe
Guest Assistant Editors
Dr. Ben Brewster
Laoise Ni Bhriain
Hannah Lerigo-Stephens
Dr. Daniel Ogunniyi

 

Foreword to the COVID-19 Supplemental Issue

Dr. Helen McCabe
Assistant Professor in Political Theory,
University of Nottingham School of Politics and International Relations, and Rights Lab

The global pandemic of COVID-19 represents a large and sudden exogenous shock to the world, and is having a significant impact on almost every single human being’s life in 2020 either in terms of their health, or those of their loved ones, or the consequences of the ensuing economic downturn. Given this, there are likely to have been severe consequences for people experiencing modern slavery; people at risk of modern slavery; survivors of modern slavery; those engaged in, or profiting from, modern slavery; and those working to combat it across the world. At the moment, however, as the pandemic continues to rage, a comprehensive understanding of the economic and social evidence of the effects is not available.

This Special Issue gives us the opportunity to highlight some of the research which is being done across the world to investigate, chart, and analyse the impact of COVID-19 on human trafficking solutions. A wealth of work is being done, both new research and the adaptation of existing projects to respond to this crisis. Researchers share insights into the impact on people vulnerable to modern slavery; those already experiencing it; those perpetrating it; those trying to fight it; and those trying to understand it as researchers and practitioners.

Hanley and Gauci sound an important warning note as to how COVID-19 might push efforts to monitor and address human trafficking down the international political agenda, while Chazal looks at the specific case of the impact of COVID-19 on the abilities of relevant agencies to work on preventing modern slavery in Australia during the pandemic. Mahaffey considers the impact on anti-trafficking efforts in Oklahoma, particularly among indigenous populations.

Several researchers consider the impact of COVID-19 on those already at risk of modern slavery. Byrne, Bradley, Khumallambam and Sahariah explore how COVID-19 has impacted women in India, and how the pandemic highlights how vulnerability and resilience to modern slavery is fluid. Thinyane and Gallo track the impact of COVID-19 on companies in Southeast Asia. Hansen et al consider its impact in the Ready-Made Garment industry in Bangladesh, while Sahai explores the impact on migrant workers from the same country. Niezna, Kurlander and Shamir scrutinise the impact on migrant workers in Israel. Ewan considers the impact on forced sexual exploitation across the world, while Iyer et al consider the specific impact on child sexual exploitation in India.

McGaughey tracks the impact of COVID-19 on increased risk of modern slavery in Australian companies’ supply chains – and the question of whether these were tackled, or whether the pandemic has let some companies off the hook in meeting their obligations to tackle this problem.

Others are exploring the effects of COVID-19 on survivors. Hogan and Roe-Sepowitz explore the impact of COVID-19 on survivor-support services in Arizona, and Chazal and Raby for Australia. Cordisco Tsai and Eleccion report on the impact of survivors in the Philippines. Lastly, Brewster examines the impact on “county-lines” child exploitation for drug-trafficking in the UK.

The research in this special issue also looks at good practice, resilience and adaptation. Valverde-Cano considers good practice by some European states regarding asylum and migration during the pandemic, and what lessons could be learned from this for the future. Thinyane and Gallo explain how changes to their research due to COVID-19 led to the adoption of remote monitoring with modifications to their existing Apprise Audit tool so that working conditions could continue to be scrutinised during the pandemic. Brady, McCabe and Otiende report their methodological adaptations for working remotely with survivors of human trafficking in Kenya

There is no doubt that COVID-19 has had, and will continue to have, a significant, negative effect on modern slavery and efforts to end it, seriously jeopardising our chance of achieving the global goal of ending it by 2030. There are important lessons to be learned from this research in order to try to mitigate these impacts as much as possible. We look forward to sharing more in-depth findings in 2021 when this on-going research has more detail, and more recommendations, to communicate.

 

Abstracted Articles in this issue…
(Click/tap the article title to read/download in a new browser window/tab)

 

Forward to the COVID-19 Supplemental Issue
Dr. Helen McCabe

COVID-19’s Impact on Anti-Trafficking Efforts: What do we know?
Idel Hanley, Jean-Pierre Gauci

The Impact of COVID-19 on the Identification of Victims of Trafficking and Their Access to Support Services in Australia
Dr. Nerida Chazal, Ms Kyla Raby

Critiquing America’s Response to Human Trafficking: Race, Gender, and Colonialism Narratives in a COVID-19 Context
Lucy Mahaffey

Fluid Vulnerabilities: Narratives of Modern Slavery in India during Lockdown
Dr. George Byrne, Professor Tamsin Bradley, Elizabeth Khumallambam, Dr. Sutirtha Sahariah

Ready Made Garment (RMG) Study: Bangladesh and India
Christopher Hansen, Jafar Iqbal, Maansi Parpiani, Michelle Davis, Ridhi Sahai, Vaiddehi Bansal, Mithila Iyer, Kareem Kysia

Overseas Labor Recruitment (OLR) Study – Bangladesh
Ridhi Sahai, Vaiddehi Bansal, Muhammad Jalal Uddin Sikder, Kareem Kysia

Underlying conditions: The Commodification of Migrant Workers Under COVID-19
Maayan Niezna, Dr. Yahel Kurlander, Hila Shamir

The Finance of Sex Trafficking and Impact of COVID-19
Phoebe Ewen

Commercial Sexual Exploitation (CSE) Study – India
Erika Keaveney, Mithila Iyer, Xiran Liu, Kareem Kysia

Pivoting technology: understanding working conditions in the time of COVID-19
Hannah Thinyane, Michael Gallo

Australia’s Modern Slavery Act and COVID-19: a get out of jail free card?
Fiona McGaughey

Services and Safety for Survivors of Human Trafficking: A Social Service Agency Statewide Survey on the Impact of COVID-19
Kimberly A. Hogan

Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on survivors of human trafficking in the Philippines
Laura Cordisco Tsai, PhD, and Jonna Eleccion

COVID-19 and Child Criminal Exploitation: Implications of the Pandemic for County Lines
Ben Brewster, Grace Robinson

Assessing the impact of ad-hoc migratory and asylum regulations on the vulnerability to human trafficking and forced labour in Spain, Germany, and Italy: identifying good practices during the COVID-19 pandemic
Dr. Ana B. Valverde-Cano, Juan J. Ruiz-Ramos, Paola Cavanna

The Impact of COVID-19 on Survivors of Modern Slavery in Kenya
Emily Brady, Dr. Helen McCabe, Sophie Otiende, Aisha Ali Haji, Rehema Maya, Yasmin Manji, Ruth Sorby

 

TAP/CLICK to read/download all article abstracts in a single PDF document

JOURNAL of MODERN SLAVERY
Volume 5, Issue 1, 2020

Sentinel Surveillance and Centring Prevention in Anti-Trafficking Policy and Response
Michael Gallo, Hannah Thinyane

“I demand justice. I hold them all responsible”: Advancing the Enforcement of Anti-slavery Legislation in Mauritania
Rosana Garciandia, Maeve RyanPhilippa Webb

Can Tech Tame the Outlaw Ocean? A Book Review of The Outlaw Ocean: Crime and Survival in the Last Untamed Frontier (Author: Ian Urbina) and Film Review of Ghost Fleet (directed by Shannon Service and Jeffrey Waldron)
Bama Athreya, PhD

PAST JOURNAL ISSUES

JOURNAL of MODERN SLAVERY
Special Article

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Dr. Runa Lazzarino

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Dr. Jean Allain and Dr. Kevin Bales

Introduction by the editors of the Antislavery Usable Past Postgraduate Research Network Special Issue
Katarina Schwarz, Hannah Jeffery, and Rebecca Nelson, PhD candidates

Approaching Contemporary Slavery Through an Historic Lens: an Interdisciplinary Perspective
Rebecca Nelson and Alicia Kidd, PhD candidates

Securing the Prohibition of Labour Exploitation in Law and Practice: Slavery, Servitude, Forced Labour and Human Trafficking in Italy, Spain and the UK
Dr. Paola Cavanna, Ana Belén Valverde Cano, PhD candidate, and Amy Weatherburn, PhD candidate

Strategic Litigation as a Tool to Combat Modern Slavery
James Sinclair, PhD candidate

Irregular Victims: Investigating the Immigration Status Decisions of Post-NRM Victims of Human Trafficking, the Availability of Eligible Benefits and the Related Impact on Victims of Trafficking
Alexandra Williams-Woods and Yvonne Mellon, PhD candidates

Reasserting Agency: Procedural Justice, Victim-Centricity, and the Right to Remedy for Survivors of Slavery and Related Exploitation
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“A Colossal Work of Art”: Antislavery Methods of Visual Protest From 1845 to Today
Hannah Jeffery, PhD candidate, and Dr. Hannah-Rose Murray

‘They don’t play or run or shout…They’re slaves’: The First Survey of Children’s Literature on Modern Slavery
Charlotte James, PhD candidate

Analysing Slavery through Satellite Technology: How Remote Sensing Could Revolutionise Data Collection to Help End Modern Slavery
Bethany Jackson, PhD student, Dr. Kevin Bales, Dr. Sarah Owen, Dr. Jessica Wardlaw, and Dr. Doreen S. Boyd

Collaborating to Identify, Recover and Support Victims of Modern Slavery
Ben Brewster, PhD candidate

JOURNAL of MODERN SLAVERY
Volume 4, Issue 1, Summer 2018

The Developments of Trafficking in Women in Post-Revolution Tunisia
by Racha Haffar

Understanding Child Trafficking within Ghana: Stakeholders’ Perspective
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An Economist’s Perspective of Kevin Bales’ “Blood and Earth: Modern Slavery, Ecocide, and the Secret to Saving the World”
Jennifer Bossard, Ph.D

Cultural Competence of Western Psychotherapists in Helping Sex Trade Survivors: An Initial Exploration
Daphne Catherine Spyropoulos, B.A.

Civil Society Organisations in Counter-Trafficking Governance: When Long-Standing Interactions Lead to Solid Partnerships
Chloé Brière, PhD, LLM
Julia Muraszkiewicz, PhD, LLM
Amy Weatherburn, LLB, LLM

SLAVERY TODAY JOURNAL
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Book Review: Collaborating Against Human Trafficking: Cross Sector Challenges and Practices (Author: Dr. Kirsten Foot)
Reviewed by Eve Aronson, M.A.

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Learning From Incidents to Improve Services: Kenyan Victims’ Reaction to a Migrant Labour Scam in Thailand
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Prosecuting Human Trafficking – Progress in the UK
Kate Garbers

The Relationship Between Human Rights Violations and Human Trafficking
Julia Muraszkiewicz, LLM

Listening to Local and Foreign Sex Buyers of Men and Women in Cambodia
Samantha Sommer Miller, MAICS, Glenn Miles, PhD, and James Havey

Measuring Government Responses to Modern Slavery: Vietnam Case Study
Bodean Hedwards, PhD candidate, and Katherine Bryant, M.A.

Thinking Beyond the Escape: Evaluating the Reintegration of Child Soldiers in Uganda
Jillian LaBranche, M.A.

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Repressed Memories: Historical Perspectives on Trafficking and Anti-Trafficking
Eileen P. Scully, PhD

Criminal Legislation for Human Trafficking in the Republic of Moldova
Nicole Fiorentino, MA

A Model of Multi-Disciplinary Collaboration in Regional Anti-Slavery Efforts
Erica Baer, PhD, Refael Olivares, MA, Johnny McGaha, PhD and Tama Koss Caldarone, JD

Human Trafficking at the US-Mexico Border and the Role of the Commercial Sex Trade Client
Lori Celaya, PhD and Marta Boris-Tarré, PhD

A Quantitative Analysis of Commercial Sex Advertisements During Super Bowl XLVIII
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Trafficking in Human Beings as an Enterprise: Highlighting Key Questions About Data Shortage on the Business Side
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Rise, Unite, Support: Doing “No Harm” in the Anti-Trafficking Movement
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Toward Assessment of Child Survivors of Restavèk in Haiti: Development and Evaluation of a Locally Adapted Psychosocial Assessment Instrument
Cara L. Kennedy, PhD

Considering a Regional Approach to Combating Human Trafficking in the Caribbean: The ECOWAS Example
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A Theory of Human Trafficking Prevalence and Forecasting: Unlikely Marriage of the Human Security, Transnational Organized Crime, and Human Trafficking Literatures
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Human Trafficking Specific Jury Instructions: Tools to Increase Prosecutions and Convictions
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Human Trafficking Investigations, Implications of Apathy and Inaction, Recommended Solutions
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Funding and Capacity Building Fuel Cooperation: A Case Study of Counter-Force Networks Fighting Sexual Exploitation and Trafficking in India
Rodney Green, MSc

Au Pair Scheme: Cultural Exchange or a Pathway to Slavery?
Tina Davis

Human Trafficking NGOs in Thailand: A Two-Site Case Study of the Children Served in Education Programs
Robert Spires, PhD

Economics of Child Mining Labor: Estimation of Corporation’s Profits
Roger-Claude Liwanga, LLM

Book Review: Enslaved: True Stories of Modern Day Slavery, by Jesse Sage and Liora Kasten
Reviewed by Benjamin Thomas Greer

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Unlocking the Science of Slavery
Kevin Bales, PhD

Adopting an Anti-human Trafficking Law in the DR Congo: A Significant Step in the Process of Combating Trafficking
Roger-Claude Liwanga, J.D.

Who’s Watching the Watchdog?: Are the Names of Corporations Mandated to Disclose under the California Transparency in Supply Chain Act Subject to a Public Records Request?
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A Truly Free State in the Congo: Slavery and Abolition in Global Historical Perspective
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Slavery Beyond History: Contemporary Concepts of Slavery and Slave Redemption in Ganta (Gamo) of Southern Ethiopia
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Ending Slavery
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